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o/t Metal detox
pb3046 Views: 9,934
Published: 15 years ago
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o/t Metal detox

I came across this article. I think it is interesting because of the really complete listing of what helps detox metal, including calcium and magnesium. I was also interested to see that lethargy is a symptom of lead toxicity and I wonder if that is what we are detoxing when we are soooo tired.

As for this suppository, anyone have any experience with it?

Saw a different site that encouraged a high protein diet for metal detox. What do you think?

Information for Transformation

This self-help alternative medicine site offers extensive educational information on the topics of natural healing, holistic and biological dentistry, herbal medicine, cleansing and detoxification, heavy metal detox, diet, nutrition, weight loss, and the finest, tried and tested health equipment and products available for the natural management of health.

Heavy Metal Detoxification

The most common source of heavy metal toxicity is from dental Amalgam fillings and other metal dental appliances. In 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) declared that Amalgams are a hazardous substance under the Superfund law. Scrap dental Amalgam was declared a hazardous waste in 1988 by the EPA. Outside of your mouth it has to be: 1. Stored in unbreakable, tightly sealed containers away from heat. 2. It is not to be touched. 3. Stored under liquid glycerine or photographic fixer solution. So, once it is taken out of the mouth it is toxic, but when it is placed in the teeth it is labeled "nontoxic." You can't throw it in the trash, bury it in the ground or put it in a landfill, but they say it's okay to put it in people's mouths. It sounds like truth decay! Lead, mercury and cadmium exert most of their toxicity by destroying important proteins, many of which are enzymes, hormones, or cell receptors. Mercury will attach to sulfur amino acid building blocks in proteins. The sulfur amino acids are methionine, cysteine, and taurine. Sulfur is present in all proteins. Numerous enzymes require intact sulfur groups and many are inactivated by mercury.

Lead binds with the sulfur groups on proteins and inactivates them. Lead suppresses neuron clusters in the brain, hindering brain development in children by stunting the mapping of sensory nerves. One of the primary ways the body gets rid of metal compounds is through a pathway that goes from the liver into the bile where it is then transported to the small intestine and excreted in the feces. Inorganic mercury is complexed with glutathione in the bile, suggesting that glutathione status is a major consideration in the biliary secretion of mercury. This same pathway is affected by a mercury induced reduction of available taurine needed to produce bile acid (taurocholic acid). When the microflora of the intestine has been reduced through stress, poor diet, use of Antibiotics and other drugs, fecal content of mercury is greatly reduced. Instead of being excreted in the feces, the mercury gets recirculated back to the liver. The person that is under stress, eating a poor diet, and/or taking Antibiotics will tend to maintain a higher body burden of mercury derived from dietary sources--especially if they are eating diets high in fish.

Disposal of the body's burden of mercury is via the urine and feces, although minute amounts are detectable in expired air. Excretion via the liver occurs in bile and reabsorption of some of this mercury does take place. However, the kidney is equipped with an efficient, energy-dependant mechanism for disposing of metals such as mercury. Kidney tissue contains a thiol-rich protein called metallothionein; exposure to toxic metals triggers the production of this protein which binds tightly to the metal, retaining it in the kidney tissue in a relatively harmless form. As long as the kidney's capacity for production of metallothionein is not overwhelmed, mercury excretion can eventually balance intake, thereby limiting worsening of symptoms. However, acute high doses of mercury, or an increase in the chronic dose level can readily precipitate renal failure, one of the classic symptoms of mercury poisoning.

Detoxification systems such as metallothionein, cytochrome P-450, and bile are adversely affected by mercury. Metallothionein binds toxic metals in the body to prepare them for excretion. Mercury ties up this material so it cannot clear out other metals such as lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Mercury from Amalgam binds to -SH (sulfhydryl) groups, which are used in almost every enzymatic process in the body. Mercury therefore has the potential to disturb all metabolic processes.

A small proportion of total body mercury is excreted in various forms directly in the urine without being bound to protein. In low dose, steady state conditions, such as the dentist who has worked at a similar exposure level for years, the urinary output very accurately reflects the total body burden and this is why urine monitoring is so important.

The following is a list of nutrients that facilitate the removal of heavy metals.

Mega H-: The negative hydride ions in Mega H- alter the water consumed with the food and supplements in our diet, to have a lower surface tension and an increased conductivity. A low surface tension in the extra cellular fluids is also important in the removal of toxins from the cells and into lymph and venous blood for removal from the body. Tap water has a surface tension of approximately 73 dynes/cm. The water around our cells has a surface tension of approximately 45 dynes/cm. It is necessary, that the body reduces the surface tension of water we consume in order for nutrients to pass through cell walls, and for toxins to pass out of the cells. Mega H- in water expedites this process. Glutathione: Contains cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. The liver manufactures glutathione whenever extra cysteine is available. Blood glutathione levels change in direct proportion to the amount of cysteine is in the diet. One 50 milligram capsule or tablet, three times a day taken on an empty stomach. Individuals with insulin deficiency should not take glutathione.

Methionine: Methionine levels are a major determinant in the liver's concentration of sulphur-containing compounds, such as glutathione and cysteine. As methionine is the precursor for the manufacture of cysteine in the body, extra supplementation of this critical amino acid should increase available cysteine. Animal studies have shown that methionine protects rats from the toxic effects of lead and mercury. Chelating agents such as DMSA (dimercapto succinic acid) and DMPS (dimercapto-propane sulfonic acid) bind to cysteine for excretion. L-cysteine bound to mercury (L-penicillamine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, DMSA and glutathione complexed with methylmercury) resembles the L-methionine molecule and can cross the blood brain barrier. L-methionine inhibits the transport of these complexes into the brain. Methionine increases the bioavailability of glutathione. Most of the cysteine required for the resynthesis of glutathione must originate from methionine and not from cysteine generated by the catabolism of glutathione. Patients taking only D-L-methionine increased mercury excretion in the urine by 60% over the excretion rate before taking the methionine. Lead excretion was also increased. The L-form is rapidly metabolized by the liver and does not offer a sustained antioxidant level. Over half of the D-form is slowly metabolized by the same pathways as excess L, and acts identical to L as an antioxidant. The benefit of the D-L form of methionine is the D form provides sustained blood levels allowing he L-form to be converted to other sulfur antioxidants. Babies need 22 mg/Kg body weight of methionine on a daily basis while adults need 10 mg/Kg of body weight daily.

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC): NAC forms L-cysteine, cystine, L-methionine, glutathione (GSH), and mixed di-sulfides. Stimulates the body to produce large amounts of cysteine and glutathione, thus greatly augmenting plasma and red blood cell content of both cysteine and glutathione; Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM): MSM, like fresh garlic, provides a bioavailable dietary source of sulfur. MSM exerts a direct beneficial effect in ameliorating a variety of allergic responsees and pain associated with systemic inflammatory disorders.

Milk Thistle (silymarin): Silymarin provides support and protection against liver toxins which can cause free-radical-mediated oxidative damage. Silymarin is many times more potent in antioxidant activity than vitamin E. In addition, it increases liver production of glutathione and protects red blood cell membranes against lipid peroxidation and hemolysis.

Chlorella: Is a food-like all purpose mild chelator of heavy metals; it is a specially processed green-algae type of food that is taken with meals and is quite tolerable and pleasant for many. But since chlorella is so easily contaminated, the manufacturer’s quality control is important. Nature’s Balance is a source of high quality chlorella that can be taken as a part of a person’d detox program. The detoxification capability of Chlorella is due to its unique cell wall and the material associated with it. The cell walls of Chlorella have been shown to have three layers of which the thicker middle layer contains cellulose microfibrils. Atkinson et al found a 14nm thick trilaminar layer outside the cell wall proper which was extremely resistant to breakage and thought to be composed of a polymerised carotene like material.....Laboratory studies showed that there were two active absorbing substances - sporopollenin (a naturally occurring carotene like polymer which is resistant to degradation) and the algae cell walls." Chlorella's ability to detoxify the body is very significant because of the large amount of chemicals we are exposed to in today's modern world. This ability to detoxify chemicals is also one of the important differences between Chlorella and other "green" products."

Cilantro: stimulates the body's release of mercury and other heavy metals from the brain and CNS into other tissue. This facilitates the ability to remove heavy metal from the body using other dietary protocols, such as Chorella and other chlorophyll containing herbs such as Nettles and Alfalfa. These herbs aid in detoxifying by denaturing the toxins, protecting and restoring normal cellular functions while promoting elimination. The major constituents of the volatile oils are: myrcene (1.71%), d-linalool (52.26%), citronellol (4.64%), geraniol (9.29%), safrole (2.67%), aterpinyl acetate (1.07%) and geraniol acetate. A typical dose is orally 6-15 drops 1/2 hr. before or 1 hr. after meals 2x/day. For 5 days. 2 day rest and continue. Or Apply ¼ to ½ dropper on wrists, joints, or affected areas twice a day.

Vitamin B6: needed in the metabolic process that converts methionine to cysteine and then into glutathione. B6 is capable of reducing and controlling the swelling and pain associated with the routine tissue and bone trauma resulting from normal dental operative procedures. You can also use Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P), the active form that B6 is converted to in the body. Vitamin B1: is capable of reducing pain that may be associated with routine dental operative procedures. B1 is one of two vitamins containing sulfur, the other is Biotin.

Magnesium: Magnesium availablility is essential for the proper functinoing of our immune system as well as hundreds of enzyme systems critical to human health. Organically amino acid-bound ones are more easily absorbed and are less irritating to the gastrointestinal tract as well.

Activated charcoal: taken immediately with chlorella, 15 minutes before drilling/chunking out amalgam, will bind any swallowed mercury and also prevent recirculation in the liver.

Refrain from taking any supplements that contain iron and copper. Mercury amalgam removal alone does not put an end to the mercury poisoning. The mercury which leached from the fillings in the mouth is stored in cells throughout the body and continues to exert its damaging influence. It is not unusual to see patients who have had their amalgam fillings removed and replaced ten to fifteen years prior to testing still having elevated levels of mercury in the body. Once mercury toxicity has been demonstrated, by tests such as high electrogalvanism, high mercury vapor emissions, and/or high mercury body burden, mercury amalgam removal and replacement with alternate, non-toxic materials is the recommended step. Botanical substances to assist in removing the mercury include cilantro and chlorella which are particularly effective.


The skin is the body's largest detoxiification organs and sweating can help draw mercury from the body. Saunas are a useful adjunct to safe mercury removal because they induce copious sweating. Initiate sweating and increased circulation by exercising 20 minutes three times a day on a rebounder (mini trampoline). Immediately following the exercise, sit in a sauna or under infrared lights (infrared sauna) for up to 30 minutes, then take a cool shower. The temperature from a "low heat" sauna should be between 140 to 180 degrees F. in contrast to the 200 to 210 degree F. for a non-therapeutic standard sauna. The sauna may be followed by a plunge into a bath or under a shower whose temperature is 65 degrees F. Over a period of three to four days, increase your time in the sauna to a total of up to two hours, divided into 30-minute periods with a short cooling-off period in between. It's important to shower and towel dry because the removal of sweat prevents reabsorption of toxins. While doing the sauna program, consume adequate amounts of water to avoid dehydration. this is a minimum of two quarts before and after entering the sauna. Replace your electrolytes lost to perspiration with grape or prune juice and drink vegetable juices to replace calcium and magnesium lost through the skin.

Oral Metal Chelation
NDF (Nanocolloidal Detox Factors)

Based on the results of comparative 24 hour urine samples analyzed by an independent clinic and lab, a person can safely excrete up to 920% (9.2 times) more heavy metals per month taking NDF daily as compared to doing one DMPS intravenous injection per month. This greatly shortens the time required to achieve detoxification, an average toxic adult person requiring a maximum dose of 2 mls. twice a day for a period of about two months. NDF also removes other toxins from the system.

The predominant route of excretion is via the urine, thus accelerating the excretion rate of the mobilized metals as compared to the fecal route, decreasing the possibility of enzyme and leaky gut mediated resorption through the bowel, and decreasing the burden on the liver. The majority of the metals to be mobilized and eliminated per dose are quickly detectable in the first urination following the dose. Fecal Element studies show an average of 38.4% reduction in fecal metals following 5 days at maximum dosage while urine levels remain elevated. Individual pathways of elimination have been noted. Independent real time digital EEG studies show a beneficial effect on the electrical activity of the brain, specifically raises the heavy metal suppressed beta waves to normal levels (from within 5 to 113 minutes post ingestion and lasting at least 4 hours) with a concurrent dramatic increase in the urinary excretion of heavy metals and patient reports of subjective improvement. This proves that no "healing crisis" is required during heavy metal detox while using NDF.


2 milliliters (2 droppers full or 52 drops) contain:

· 50 mgs. - Nanocolloidal cell wall decimated Chlorella Pyrenoidosa

· .12 mls. - Nanocolloidal Cilantro

· 10 mgs. - Nanocolloidal *PolyFlor

· 75 mgs/liter nanocolloidal Silica

· Grain neutral spirits 18% as a preservative

*PolyFlor microorganisms include: 12 strains of lactobacillus (including casei, acidophilus, salivarius, bulgaricus, sporogones and plantarum), 3 strains bifidobacterium including longum and bifidum, streptococcus thermophilus, and b. laterosporus.

Why "Nanonize" the Ingredients?

Chlorella is known in mining to bind heavy metals to its cell wall. Yet many people have taken Chlorella with no benefit. The reasons are that all of the available chlorella is not really "cell wall broken" and that most of it is already contaminated with heavy metals. Most of the cell walls are in tact, but the individual diatoms are tightly clustered in groups of about 500 units each. This is very difficult to digest and may explain why some people get gastro intestinal distress when taking normal chlorella but not with NDF. Nanocolloidal cell wall decimated chlorella has never been available so far! In addition to binding to heavy metals, Chlorella has other beneficial effects, augmented by putting it through this process, including: increased elimination of toxins, growth hormone regulation, a powerful nutritive impact and protection from radiation.

Why does it work?

The following is essential to the understanding of this supplement: The ingredients are in a nanocolloidal form. There is at least a 500-fold increase in available surface area and a dramatically reduced particle size, thus rendering each ingredient more bioavailable and effective. That means the effective bioavailable dose is roughly one five hundredth of the dose required compared to using a dose of the original ingredient. This is why 50 milligrams of nanonized chlorella achieves what 25 grams of normal chlorella cannot. Most toxin-burdened people have compromised assimilation and utilization and can't benefit from macromolecules.

In the past, Chlorella was only known to mobilize a small amount of heavy metals via the bowel. In NDF, because it is nanonized, "molecular components digested off the nano particles can be absorbed across the GI wall into the bloodstream and have a possibility to enter the brain depending on the molecule" - a possible explanation of why it can facilitate elimination via the urine.

PolyFlor contains fulvic acid. This could be the underlying reason why healthy bowel flora is so vital to good health. However, just taking a flora supplement will not provide heavy metal detox of the same magnitude as NDF (

The major health benefits of both live and cell wall broken beneficial bacteria are described by recent clinical research in The Handbook of Probiotics. Lee, Nomoto, Salminen, and Gorbach. Pub. Wiley & Sons, Inc. '99. Unfortunately, once the Amalgams are put into the teeth, or the toxic body burden becomes too great, or if a person only consumes processed and pesticide grown foods, these powerful allies no longer stand a chance of sharing their healing benefits with us.

Duration of Therapy

So far, only how much metal is being excreted can be measured, not the total body burden, so it is impossible to exactly predict the duration or cost of therapy. We do know that there is a linear relationship between the volume of the dose and the amount of excreted metals. Therefore, the more they can take, the quicker the detox will be. However, it is preferable to maintain the dose at the level that the patient continuously reports subjective improvement as a "healing crisis" is not required to effectively remove the heavy metals with NDF.

Cost Effectiveness / Compared to DMPS

It was recently determined by an independent, comparative 24-hour urine tests conducted by Dr. J. Wright via Doctors Data that a single, 2-dropper dose of NDF pulled out 20% as much metals as an IV dose of DMPS on the same patient. Since NDF can be taken daily, and DMPS only once a month (per the protocol presented by Drs. Klinghart and Mercola), this means that up to 920% (9.2 times) more metal can be excreted per month using 2 droppers of NDF twice a day (maximum dose) without the side effects and mineral deficiencies associated with DMPS. Since there is a linear relationship between amount of the dose and percentage increase in excreted metals, 6 drops twice a day would take out about 107%, or roughly the same amount of metals per month as DMPS, making NDF very cost effective, especially when you consider that very little additional supplementation is required while using NDF. Suggested retail is now $150 for a one-month supply, equal to the cost and efficiency of one DMPS IV push.

Rectal Chelation

New Delivery Method for Chelation Therapy

The newest, easiest, most convenient and efficacious technique for detoxifying heavy metals out of the body is by means of rectal chelation therapy. The method is to self-apply Detoxamin, a patented, trademarked and registered over-the-counter suppository. People exhibiting toxic metal burdens now are able to chelate themselves while sleeping by use of this non-prescription chelator. Merely insert the firm gelatin pill into the rectum, go to sleep, and awake in the morning partially detoxified. Repeat the procedure until testing show that there is no more metal poison remaining in the body. With this suppository method, the main obstacle to intravenous EDTA chelation therapy has been eliminated. Rather than spending three or more hours per infusion session in a clinic, hooked to an IV, you may take less than a minute to insert the Detoxamin suppository at home before bedtime. Since many people cringe at the thought of getting stuck with a needle for twenty or more such IV treatments, use of a suppository eliminates this psychologically stressful and time-consuming obstacle. Rectal administration is less invasive, in no way uncomfortable, and generally greatly preferred over IV treatments.

Taking 3-5 suppositories over a 30-day period. This is medically equal to approximately 2-EDTA IV treatments. When on Detoxamin maintenance one box of Detoxamin lasts 6 to 10 months. Taken every night for 90 days or every other night for 180 days provides the medical equivalence of approximately 30 IV Chelation treatments.

Rectal chelation therapy does the job of detoxifying in a low-cost way to effuse EDTA through the bowel’s walls and into your blood stream to clean toxic metals from all body cells. Detoxamin has a time-release mechanism that allows the EDTA to absorb through the colon wall over an eighty-minute period while you sleep. Almost all the blood from the rectum makes its way to the superior hemorrhoidal veins, a tributary of the portal system, so that absorption through the rectal wall carries the EDTA in Detoxamin to the portal vein.

The lower and middle hemorrhoidal veins bypass the liver-and do not undergo first pass metabolism. This means that the EDTA in Detoxamin goes directly to the organs of your body without being filtered through the liver first. Because of this, the EDTA contained in Detoxamin is very productive. Detoxamin also introduces EDTA directly into the systemic circulation, efficiently bypassing the portal circulation and the liver metabolism on the first pass. Rectal absorption may also occur through the lymphatic system and, in some cases, largely through the blood via the vena cava.

Detoxamin offers many advantages both over the expensive intravenous method of EDTA chelation. With the use of needles via the intravenous method, and risk of AIDS and other communicable blood-borne diseases, Detoxamin is becoming the logical choice over I.V. EDTA chelation and the poorly absorbed oral EDTA. The rectum has a more neutral pH and is not as acidic as the stomach, which makes this area much better for EDTA absorption because it is not buffered and has a neutral pH, unlike the stomach. It also has very little enzymatic activity, thus enzymatic degradation does not occur. The rectal mucosa (rectum) is much more capable than the gastric mucosa (stomach) of tolerating various drug-related irritations. This is why patients who can't tolerate oral pain medication are given the same medication in suppository form. In fact, absorption with any oral EDTA tablet is so low that 135 (500mg) oral EDTA tablets are equal to just 5 Detoxamin suppositories.

Detoxamin removes most harmful toxins from the body, safely and effectively. Detoxamin is taken at night prior to bedtime, each Detoxamin suppository contains 750mg of Calcium-disodium EDTA, and is made in a cocoa-butter base (melts on body contact), which is very therapeutic for the rectal mucosa and the colon wall. The Ca-sodium form is able to bond (chelate) effectively because it does not lower the blood pH to a level that would prohibit the bonding action. The Ca added to the salt is important in this mode of administration as it buffers the acidic quality of the active ingredient keeping the suppository from being abrasive to the mucous membrane of the rectum area. Ca-disodium EDTA has both a scientific justification for therapeutic effectiveness as well as a clinical history of effectiveness.

The Calcium EDTA in Detoxamin has an extra chemical bond compared to the older Disodium EDTA. This gives Detoxamin EDTA an affinity for Mercury. Mercury is also excreted from the body through the feces and, because Detoxamin utilizes the colon wall for EDTA assimilation; it is a powerful Mercury chelator.

Metal Removing Nutrients

Calcium & Vitamin C: Just as lead will displace calcium, calcium is an excellent nutrient to utilize for displacing mercury and lead. Utilizing a combination of minerals, such as magnesium and calcium, is even more effective in clearing metals from the body. Increasing vitamin C intake is a reasonable cost-effective way to control toxic metal levels in the population. Several studies implicate lead in causing cavities, and at least one study suggests that almost 3 million cavities in children result from lead. Vitamin C and Calcium supplementation are recommended for protection.

Chlorophyll: chlorophyll binds to heavy metals very well. In fact, it is imperative to choose a reputable source for your chlorophyll, which screens for toxins and heavy metals; or you may be getting more than you want. A good source is juiced raw, organic greens.

Fiber: Fiber, such as oat bran and apple pectin, will bind to metals and help draw them out of the body. Montmorillinite clay also binds extremely well to toxins and metals for clearance. Fiber such as red beet root fiber is high in proanthocyanidins and antioxidants and facilitates clearance of metals through the liver.

Lipoic Acid: Lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant and has a high affinity for binding to metals. This makes it an excellent choice as a supplement to bind and clear mercury and lead from the system. It is best utilized in combination with conjugating nutrients.

Minerals: A mineral-rich diet acts as a chelating agent. Many minerals will chelate metals, including calcium, magnesium, zinc and selenium. Mercury interferes with some functions of selenium, including its powerful antioxidant function and its ability to bind to metals. A good source of bioavailable minerals is from raw sea vegetables and grass juices from wheat, barley, alfalfa, kamut, etc.

Milk Thistle (silybum marianum): Milk thistle is a renowned liver herb, and supports this major detoxification organ. Milk thistle contains silymarin, a bioflavonoid that is a very potent remedy for the liver. Silymarin inhibits free radical damage; free radicals have an adverse effect on the detoxification enzymes of the liver cytochrome P450 system, while silymarin protects those enzymes. Glutathione is destroyed by lead. Silymarin not only prevents the depletion of GSH (glutathione), it even increased this liver-detoxifying enzyme. A sulfur pathway in the liver detoxes lead, and milk thistle helps to boost liver function.

Molybdenum: Large amounts of exogenous sulfur (from outside the body) will usurp the body's stores of molybdenum to metabolize it. An easier solution is to use the nutrients which will facilitate the homocysteine pathway. Homocysteine is a toxic substance, however the pathway itself, when properly supported, is essential for a host of metabolic functions. When the pathway is facilitated, sulfur is generated as a natural by-product at the end (molybdenum changes the toxic sulfite molecule to the much-needed sulfate). Vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid, along with trimethylglycine and dimethylglycine recycle homocysteine to methionine, and allow for Sam-e to methylate phosphatidylserine, an important brain nutrient. Usually the people who are the most deficient in sulfur will be the most sensitive to metal toxicity and vice versa.

Parotid Glandular: Parotid glandular is believed to accelerate the clearance of chemicals/heavy metals from tissues. It is best utilized in combination with detoxification nutrients that will pull the metals out of the body by detox pathways such as the bowel, kidney, lymph, lungs, blood, skin, and liver.

Sulfur: Lead, mercury and cadmium steal sulfur from important proteins, which could be enzymes, hormones, or cell receptors. Conversely, sulfur is needed in the liver detox pathway to hook onto these metals and clear them from the body. So, lead, mercury and cadmium depletes sulfur, the very nutrient needed to detox the metal overload. A depletion of sulfur will also adversely affect joint connective tissue growth, since sulfur is an essential precursor to the building blocks of cartilage, namely glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Good sources are egg yolks, garlic, kelp, kale, turnip, raspberries, onions, cabbage, and mustard.

Zinc: Zinc and copper get displaced from metallothionine, the protein that binds and carries them. This destroys many of the zinc-dependent enzymes. Zinc is important for proper functioning in a host of major metabolic pathways; it is a component of over 90 metalloenzymes in the body. Lead has always been known as a neurotoxin, with the brain being particularly susceptible to attack. Lethargy is a common symptom of lead toxicity; lead inactivates the zinc-dependent enzymes of the Kreb's cycle, which produces our energy. Zinc is also a part of the antioxidant enzyme, Zn-SOD, which fights superoxide radicals. Symptoms of lead toxicity are similar to zinc deficiency symptoms because lead can bring on a zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including dyslexia, epilepsy, mental depression, and attention deficit disorder. The symptoms of lead toxicity are similar to zinc deficiency because the lead destroys the zinc-dependent enzymes.

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