And most Yeasts proliferate in the presence of mercury, and altered pH (a great debate!), which accompanies abnormal composition of bacterial flora - and actually drives down the iron levels - because the yeasts have a way of not using iron! Also, I found that historically, flax seed oil has been used to remove mercury from the body, and this is where "you come in."
When I got this far in my little investigation, I did a search for "mercury flaxseed" and the following was at the top of the list! I made all of that text blue, so you can keep track of what it says, and whatever I might add. You can find this web page at http://www.talkinternational.com/science/als.htm
"Daily mercury exposures to those with Amalgam dental fillings commonly exceed the Government health guideline for mercury, due to mercury's negative vapor pressure and galvanic action with other metals in the mouth(500). People also commonly get exposures to mercury and other toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, nickel, and aluminum from food, water, and other sources(501). All of these are highly neurotoxic and are documented to cause neurological damage which can result in chronic neurological conditions over time.
Mercury has been found to accumulate preferentially in the primary motor function related areas involved in ALS- such as the brain stem, cerebellum, rhombencephalon, dorsal root ganglia, and anterior horn motor neurons, which enervate the skeletal muscles(48,291,327,329,442,500). Many studies of patients with major neurological or degenerative diseases have found evidence Amalgam fillings play a major role in development of conditions such as such as ALS (48,92,97,207,229b,325,416,423,442,468,470,35).
Here's what it does! A direct mechanism involving mercury's inhibition of cellular enzymatic processes by binding with the hydroxyl radical(SH) in amino acids appears to be the noticeable effects that pertain to a major part of the connection to allergic/immune reactive conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, eczema, psoriasis, and allergies(500), as well as to autoimmune conditions such as ALS, Lupus, Alzheimer's(AD), Scleroderma, Chronic Fatigue(CFS), and Fibromyalgia(FM), etc . For example the patient has a lot of intestinal distress with all types of milk products, simply because, mercury has been found to strongly inhibit the activity of dipeptyl peptidase (DPP IV) which is required in the digestion of the milk protein casein(411,412) as well as of xanthine oxidase(439) Additional cellular level enzymatic effects of mercury's binding with proteins include blockage of sulfur oxidation processes (33,114,194,412), enzymatic processes involving vitamins B6 and B12(418), effects on the cytochrome-C energy processes (43,84,232,338c,35), along with mercury's adverse effects on cellular mineral levels of calcium, magnesium, copper,zinc, and lithium (43,96,119,198,333, 386,427,432,489,500). And along with these blockages of cellular enzymatic processes, mercury has been found to cause additional neurological and immune system effects in many through immune/autoimmune reactions (60,313,314,375,405) A recent study gives a comprehensive review of studies finding a connection between ALS, toxic metals, and autoimmunity(405).
Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species(ROS) have been implicated as major factors in neurological disorders including ALS, motor neuron disease(MND), CFS, FM, Parkinson's(PD), Multiple Schlerosis(MS), and Alzheimer's(AD) (13,56,84,98,145,169,207b,424,442-444,453, 462,496). Mercury forms conjugates with thiol compounds such as glutathione and cysteine and causes depletion of glutathione, which is necessary to mitigate reactive damage. One study found that insertion of Amalgam fillings or nickel dental materials causes a supression of the number of T-lympocytes(270), and impairs the T-4/T-8 ratio. Low T4/T8 ratio has been found to be a factor in autoimmune conditions. Mercury induced lipid peroxidation has been found to be a major factor in mercury's neurotoxicity, along with leading to decreased levels of glutathione peroxidation and superoxide dismustase(SOD)(13,254,489,494-496). Metalloprotein(MT) are involved in metals transport and detoxification(114,442,464) What do you think would happen if the MT's were all knocked out? Mercury inhibits sulfur ligands in MT and in the case of intestinal cell membranes inactivates MT that normally bind cuprous ions(477), thus allowing buildup of copper to toxic levels in many and malfunction of the Zn/Cu SOD function. Exposure to mercury results in changes in metalloprotein compounds that have genetic effects, having both structural and catalytic effects on gene _expression (114,241,296,442,464,477,495). Some of the processes affected by such MT control of genes include cellular respiration, metabolism, enzymatic processes, metal-specific homeostasis, and adrenal stress response systems. Significant physiological changes occur when metal ion concentrations exceed threshold levels. Such MT formation also appears to have a relation to autoimmune reactions in significant numbers of people (114,60,313, 342,369,442,464). Of a population of over 3000 tested by the immune lymphocyte reactivity test(MELISA,60,275), 22% tested positive for inorganic mercury and 8% for methyl mercury, but much higher percentages tested positive for autoimmune condition patients. In the MELISA laboratory, 12 out of 13 ALS patients tested showed positive immune reactivity lymphocyte responses to metals in vitro , indicating metals reactivity a likely major factor in their condition. A recent study assessed the possible causes of high ALS rates in Guam and similar areas and the recent decline in this conditions. One of the studies conclusions was that a likely major factor for the high ALS rates in Guam and similar areas in the past was chronic dietary deficiency since birth in Ca, Mg and Zn induced excessive absorption of divalent metal cations such as mercury which accelerates oxidant-mediated neuronal degenerations in a genetically susceptible population(466).
Mercury blocks the immune function of magnesium and zinc (198,427,43,38), (And what effect to you think that might produce?) whose deficiencies are known to cause significant neurological effects(461,463,430). The low Zn levels result in deficient CuZnSuperoxide dismustase (CuZnSOD), which in turn leads to increased levels of superoxide due to toxic metal exposure. This is in addition to mercury's effect on metallothionein and copper homeostasis as previously discussed(477). Copper is an essential trace metal which plays a fundamental role in the biochemistry of the nervous system(489,495463,,464). Several chronic neurological conditions involving copper metabolic disorders are well documented like Wilson's Disease and Menkes Disease. Mutations in the copper/zinc enzyme superoxide dismustase(SOD) have been shown to be a major factor in the motor neuron degeneration in conditions like familial ALS. Exposures to toxic metals such as mercury and cadmium have been found to cause such effects, and similar effects on Cu/Zn SOD have been found to be a factor in other conditions such as autism, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and non-familial ALS (489,495,464,469,111). This condition can result in zinc deficient SOD and oxidative damage involving nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and lipid peroxidation(495,496,489), which have been found to affect glutamate mediated excitability and apoptosis of nerve cells and effects on mitochondria (495,496,119) These effects can be reduced by zinc supplementation(464,495,430), as well as supplementation with antioxidants and nitric oxide-suppressing agents and peroxynitrite scavengers such as Vit C, Vit E, lipoic acid, Coenzyme Q10, carnosine, gingko biloba, N-acetylcysteine, etc.(444,464,494,495,469,470). Ceruloplasmin in plasma can be similarly affected by copper metabolism disfunction, like SOD function, and is often a factor in neurodegeneration(489).
Calcium plays a major role in the extreme neurotoxicity of mercury and methyl mercury. Both inhibit cellular calcium ATPase and calcium uptake by brain microsomes at very low levels of exposure (270,288,329,333,432,56,). Protein Kinase C (PKC) regulates intracellular and extra cellular signals across neuronal membranes, and both forms of mercury inhibit PKC at micromolar levels, as well as inhibiting phorbal ester binding(43,432). They also block or inhibit calcium L-channel currents in the brain in an irreversable and concentration dependent manner. Mecury vapor or inorganic mercury exposure affects the posterior cingulate cortex and causes major neurological effects with sufficient exposure(428,453). Some of the resulting conditions include stomatitis, tremor, ADD, erythism, etc. Metallic mercury is much more potent than methyl mercury in such actions, with 50 % inhibitation in animal studies at 13 ppb(333,329).
Mercury exposure also degrades the immune system resulting in more susceptability to viral, bacterial, or parasitic effects along with candida albicans which are often present in those with chronic conditions and require treatment (404,468,470,485,500). Four such commonly found in ALS patients are mycoplasma AND echo-7 enterovirus(468,470), candida albicans(404), and parasites(485). Mercury from amalgam interferes with production of cytokines that activate macrophage and neutraphils, disabling early control of viruses or other pathogens and leading to enhanced infection(131,251).
Spatial and temporal changes in intracellular calcium concentrations are critical for controlling gene _expression and neurotransmitter release in neurons(432,438). Mercury alters calcium homeostasis and calcium levles in the brain and affects gene _expression and neurotransmitter release through its effects on calcium, etc. Mercury inhibits sodium and potassium (N,K)ATPase in dose dependent manner and inhibits dopamine and noreprenephrine uptake by synaptosomes and nerve implulse transfer(288,270,56,43,35). Mercury also interrupts the cytochrome oxidase system, blocking the ATP energy function (35,43,84), chronic flatigue syndrom, lowering immune growth factor IGF-I levels and impairing astrocyte function(119,131). Astrocytes are common cells in the CNS involved in the feeding and detox of nerve cells. Increases in inflamatory cytokines such as caused by toxic metals trigger increased free radical activity and damage to astrocyte and astrocyte function(152). IGF-I protects against brain and neuronal pathologies like ALS, MS, and Fibromyalgia by protecting the astrocytes from this destructive process.
Mercury lymphocyte reactivity and effects on glutamate in the CNS induce Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome type symptoms including profound tiredness, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal and neurological problems along with other Chronic-Fatigue-Syndrome symptoms and Fibromyalgia(342,346,369,375,496). Mercury has been found to be a common cause of Fibromyalgia(293,346,369) , which based on a Swedish survey occurs in about 12% of women over 35 and 5.5% of men(368). Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the body and in the CNS acts as excitory neurotransmitter (346,386,412,496,119), which also causes inflow of calcium. Astrocytes, a type of cell in the brain and CNS with the task of keeping clean the area around nerve cells, have a function of neutralizing excess glutamate by transforming it to glutamic acid. If astrocytes are not able to rapidly neutralize excess glutamate, most obviously because of the mercury's influence, then a buildup of glutamate and calcium occurs, causing swelling and neurotoxic effects(119,131,152,333,496). Mercury and other toxic metals inhibit astrocyte function in the brain and CNS(119,131), causing increased glutamate and calcium related neurotoxicity(119,152,333,226a,496) which are responsible for much of the Fibromyalgia symptoms and a factor in neural degeneration in MS and ALS. This is also a factor in conditions such as CFS, Parkinson's, and ALS(346,416,496). Animal studies have confirmed that increased levels of glutamate(or aspartate, another amino acid excitory neurotransmitter) cause increased sensitivity to pain , as well as higher body temperature- both found in CFS/Fibromyalgia. Mercury and increased glutamate activate free radical forming processes like xanthine oxidase which produce oxygen radicals and oxidative neurological damage(346,142,13). Medical studies and doctors treating Fibromyalgia have found that supplements which cause a decrease in glutamate or protect against its effects have a positive effect on Fibromyalgia and other chronic neurologic conditions. Some that have been found to be effective include CoQ10 (444), ginkgo biloba and pycnogenol(494a), NAC(54,494a), Vit B6, methyl cobalamine(B12), L-carnitine, choline, ginseng, vitamins C and E, nicotine, and omega 3 fatty acids(fish and flaxseed oil) (417,495e).
Another neurological effect of mercury that occurs at very low levels is inhibition of nerve growth factors, for which deficiencies result in nerve degeneration. Only a few micrograms of mercury severely disturb cellular function and inhibits nerve growth (175,147,226,255,305,149). Prenatal or neonatal exposures have been found to have life long effects on nerve function and susceptability to toxic effects. Prenatal mercury vapor expsoure that results in levels of only 4 parts per billion in newborn rat brains was found to cause decreases in nerve growth factor and other effects(305). This is a level that is common in the population with several amalgam fillings or other exposures(500). Insulin-like-growth factor I (IGF-I) are positively correlated with growth hormone levels and have been found to be the best easily measured marker for levels of growth hormone, but males have been found more responsive to this factor than women(497). IGF-I controls the survival of spinal motor neruons affected in ALS during development as well as later in life(497,498). IGF-I and insulin levels have been found to be reduced in ALS pateients with evidence this is a factor in ALS(497,498). Several clinical trials have found IGF-I treatment is effective at reducing the damage and slowing the progression of ALS and Alzheimer's with no medically important adverse effects(498). It has also been found that in chronically ill patients the levels of pituitary and thyroid hormones that control many bodily processes are low, and that supplenting both thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth control hormone is more effective at increasing all of these hormone levels in the patient(499).
Tick-borne encephalitis, such as Lyme Diseaese, has been found to cause ALS in a significant portion of untreated acute cases(471). Lyme disease is widespread in the U.S.
Large numbers of patients diagnosed with ALS have been found to have treatable tick-borne encephaltis, and many have recovered after treatment.
Extremely toxic anerobic bacteria from root canals or cavitations formed at incompletely healed tooth extraction sites have also been found to be common factors in fibromyalgia and other chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson's and ALS, with condensing osteitis which must be removed with a surgical burr along with 1 mm of bone around it(35,437,500). Have you had any teeth extracted in the last year or so? Cavitations have been found in 80% of sites from wisdom tooth extractions tested and 50% of molar extraction sites tested(35,437). The incidence is likely somewhat less in the general population. Medical studies and doctors treating fibromylagia have found that supplements which cause a decrease in glutamate or protect against its effects have a positive effect on fibromyalgia and other chronic neurologic conditions like ALS. Some that have been found to be effective include Vit B6, methyl cobalamine(B12), L-carnitine, choline, ginseng, Ginkgo biloba,vitamins C and E, CoQ10, nicotine, and omega 3 fatty acids(fish and flaxseed oil) (417,468).
Clinical tests of patients with ALS, MND, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Lupus(SLE), and Rheumatoid Arthritis have found that the patients generally have elevated plasma cysteine to sulphate ratios, with the average being 500% higher than controls(330,331,56,84), and in general being poor sulphur oxidizers. This means that these patients have blocked enzymatic processes for converting the basic cellular fuel cysteine to sulfates and glutathione, and thus insufficient sulfates available to carry out necessary bodily processes. Mercury has been shown to diminish and block sulphur oxidation and thus reducing glutathione levels which is the part of this process involved in detoxifying and excretion of toxics like mercury(33). Glutathione is produced through the sulphur oxidation side of this process. Low levels of available glutathione have been shown to increase mercury retention and increase toxic effects(111), while high levels of free cysteine have been demonstrated to make toxicity due to inorganic mercury more severe(333,194,56,33e). The deficiency in conjugation and detoxification of sulfur based toxins in the liver results in toxic metabolites and progressive nerve damage over time (331). Mercury has also been found to play a part in inducing intolerance and neuronal problems through blockage of the P-450 enzymatic process(84,33e). Patients with some of these conditions have found that bathing in Epsom Salts (magnesium sulfate) offers temporary relief for some of their symptoms by providing sulfates that avoid the blocked metabolic pathway. A test that some doctors treating conditions like ALS usually prescribe to measure the cysteine to sulfate ratio and other information useful in diagnosis and treatment is the Great Smokies Diagnostic Labs comprehensive liver detox test(386). The test results come with some recommendations for treatment. A hair test for toxic metals is also usually ordered to determine toxic exposures that might be involved(386). A more definitive test such as MELISA for immune reactivity to toxics is available by sending blood to a European lab(87). Other labs also have other useful tests such as Immune Reactivity Biocompatability Tests(445), ELISA or organic acid panels or amino acid panels(386). Treatment using IV glutathione, vitaminC, and minerals has been found to be very effective in the stabilizing and ammelioration of some of these chronic neurological conditions by neurologist such as Perlmutter in Florida(469).
In one subtype of ALS, damaged, blocked, or faulty enzymatic superoxide dimutase (SOD) processes appear to be a major factor in cell apoptosis involved in the codition(443). Mercury is known to damage or inhibit SOD actitivity(441,33,111).
Total dental revision(TDR) which includes replacing amalgam fillings, extracting root canaled teeth, and treating cavitations has been found to offer significant health improvements to many with ALS and other autoimmune conditions(35,293,437). root canals and cavitations have been found to harbor anerobic bacteria which give off toxins of extreme toxicity which block enzymatic processes at the cellular level causing degenerative processes according to the medical labs that do the tests(437,35), similar to mercury's effects but in some cases even more toxic . IGF-1 treatments have also been found to alleviate some of the symptoms of ALS(424). Medical studies and doctors treating fibromylagia have found that supplements which cause a decrease in glutamate or protect against its effects have a positive effect on fibromyalgia. Some that have been found to be effective in treating metals related autoimmune conditions include Vit B6, CoenzymeQ10, methyl cobalamine(B12), L-carnitine, choline, ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, vitamins C and E, nicotine, and omega 3 fatty acids(fish and flaxseed oil) (417,444,468).
One dentist with severe symptoms similar to ALS improved after treatment for mercury poisoning(246), and others treated for mercury poisoning or using TDR have also recovered or significantly improved (97,229,423,405,406,468-470,485,35).The Edelson Clinic in Atlanta which treats ALS patients reports similar experience(406), and the Perlmutter Clinic has also had success with treatment of ALS and other degenerative neurological coditions(469).
While there are many studies documenting effectiveness of chemical chelators like DMSA and DMPS at reducing metals levels and alleviating adverse effects for most conditions, and many thousands of clinical case results(500,501); there is also some evidence from animal studies that these chelators can result in higher levels of mercury in the motor neurons in the short term which might be a problem for ALS patients(). Thus other detox options might be preferable for ALS patients until enough clinical evidence is available treating ALS patients with them with mercury toxicity. Another chelator used for clogged arteries, EDTA, forms toxic compounds with mercury and can damage brain function(307). Use of EDTA may need to be restricted in those with high Hg levels. N-acetylcysteine(NAC) has been found to be effective at increasing cellular glutathione levels and chelating mercury(54). Experienced doctors have also found additional zinc to be useful when chelating mercury(222) as well as counteracting mercury's oxidative damage(43). Zinc induces metallothionein which protects against oxidative damage and increases protective enzyme activities and glutathione which tend to inhibit lipid peroxidation and suppress mercury toxicity(430,464). Also lipoic acid,LA, has been found to dramatically increase excretion of inorganic mercury(over 12 fold), but to cause decreased excretion of organic mercury(494d) and copper. Lipoic acid has a protective effect regarding lead or inorganic mercury toxicity through its antioxidant properties(494), but should not be used with high copper until copper levels are reduced. LA and NAC (N-acetylcysteine) also increase glutathione levels and protect against superoxide radical/ peroxynitrite damage, so thus have an additional neuroprotective effect(494ab,54). Zinc is a mercury and copper antagonist and can be used to lower copper levels and protect against mercury damage. Lipoic acid has been found to have protective effects against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion, excitotoxic amino acid(glutamate) brain injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, diabetic neuropathy(494). Other antioxidants such as carnosine(495a), Coenzyme Q10,Vitamins C & E, gingko biloba, and pycnogenol have also been found protective against degenerative neurological conditions(494,495e, 444).
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