Thank you, healthybliss. The opthamologist diagnosed it as pinguecula (not pterygium) and said it's uncurable. I've researched it extensively, and basically all western medicine-type resources say it's not a big deal and don't worry about it. If it's particularly bad you can get surgery, but it sounds terrifying and doesn't seem to solve the root problem.
For awhile I thought it formed because I slept with the ceiling fan on too much with my eyes partially open and the dryness caused this "callous" to form. But then every so often I read random pieces of information that lead me to think it could be a liver problem, which makes sense the liver and eyes are linked. My naturopath does tell me I have fatty liver, and I've been working on reversing it with nutrition for awhile as well as abstaining from alcohol entirely.
I just know there HAS to be a non-surgical cure. Even if it takes awhile, as many alternative approaches do, I'm willing to do it! I'll look into doing more gallbladder/liver flushes. I've done about 3 in the past year, but I know I could benefit from more. Thank you!