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Garlic...IS PHENOMENAL! Re: Garlic and allicin
 
unyquity Views: 12,321
Published: 7 years ago
Status:       RRR [Message recommended by a moderator!]
 
This is a reply to # 1,919,089

Garlic...IS PHENOMENAL! Re: Garlic and allicin


So this begs the question... If
 
 Allicin is a volatile substance that will break down on its own in a few hours and form several different sulphuric compounds. 
 
Check below for the AMAZING list of chemicals and their 'activities' in one lil' garlic plant!  "Allicin & it's cohorts" are very significant...yet the 1/2 life of allici (the time needed for one-half of a given amount of the component to deteriorate) is estimated to be around 18 full hours. The allicin is only formed when the allinase and alliin combine where the clove is bruised or crushed. It stands to reason that the individual pieces after mincing that haven't been bruised/crush, still contain the separated allinase & alliin that still have the potential to combine and create more allicin. 
 
 
First, let's take a look at a simplistic overview of how garlic works so we can understand what we're dealing with. A bulb of garlic, Allium Sativum L., has from four to 16 or more cloves, depending on variety. In each of these cloves are cells containing the main compound of garlic, an amino acid called Alliin. In separate cells an enzyme called alliinase resides. Whenever the cellular walls separating them are damaged, some of the enzyme comes into contact with the amino acid and this sets off a chemical reaction that causes sulfenic acid to form instantly. But sulfenic acid is unstable and reacts with itself and breaks down at a steady rate into another unstable compound called allicin, which has a strong antibiotic property. Allicin is the "magic bullet" in garlic from which its many benefits are derived but being unstable, it reacts with many things and breaks down into other compounds. Because garlic forms the active compound, allicin, steadily and in regular spurts rather than all at once it is better to let it set for a 15 minutes to an hour before using it in order to build up a greater amount of allicin. Allicin has a half-life in air of about 18 hours as it slowly deteriorates into other smelly, sulfurous things. Adding allicin to water somewhat stabilizes it and preserves its antibiotic properties and extends its half life to about two months.
 
Allicin from crushed raw garlic is a very strong antibiotic that kills MRSA staph on contact and staph cannot become immune to it because it kills bacteria by causing their cells to swell and burst rather than blocking chemical receptors like pharmaceutical antibiotics do. One study (Walton, Herbold&Lendegren 1936-1938 - Journal of Food Science) even showed that the vapors alone from nearby crushed raw garlic could kill bacteria up to eight inches away in four hours. Numerous studies have shown that allicin kills cancer cells on contact but that's a moot point because allicin is too volatile to exist long enough (half-life of less than one minute in blood) in the human body to do any good.
 
When you cook or otherwise heat garlic that has been crushed the allicin that has formed breaks down into some unstable smelly fat-soluble polysulfide compounds that break down into Di Allyl Tri- Sulfide (DATS for short) which breaks down into the much more stable Di Allyl Di-Sulfide (DADS for short). When you mix crushed raw garlic with alcohol or vinegar, water-soluble polyvinyl compounds are generated. When you eat these things, the water-soluble compounds are tiny and pass right through the walls of the stomach are are absorbed directly through the capillaries into the blood stream; the fat-soluble polysulfides are too large to pass through the openings in the capillary walls and so move to the bottom of the stomach where they pass out through the pylorus into the duodenum where they are readily absorbed into the lymphatic system, a fat-soluble environment. They circulate around the lymphatic system for a few hours and then are dumped into the largest vein, the vena cava and circulate in the blood stream.
 
While these garlic metabolites are in the lymphatic system they kill or inhibit cancer cells and strengthen the immune system. Once they get into the blood stream they go through the liver and help purify it and also force it to manufacture more HDL cholesterol which then reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol and reduces total cholesterol and reduces tri-glycerides. They also work their way through the lungs and that is when they cause secondary garlic breath and also a garlicky smell emanates from the sweat glands and pores. This is an unavoidable consequence of consuming garlic and is your way of knowing the fat-soluble garlic is circulating in your lymphatic system and the rest of the body, too. Good garlic pills with abundant fat-soluble compounds will produce such a garlicky aroma several hours later; the less the secondary odor, the less the fat-soluble garlic compounds assimilated and those are the compounds that strengthen the immune system and protect against infection and cancer.
 
The fat-soluble compounds have certain properties and the water-solubles have different properties. The water-solubles are odorless while the fat-solubles are very odorous, thanks to a compound called allyl mercaptan, which causes the garlicky odor. The odor-free main water-soluble compound is S Allyl Cysteine, SAC for short, while the main fat-solubles are the polysulfides that break down into their most stable form, the smelly Di-Allyl Di-Sulfide, DADS for short. DADS is somewhat antibiotic but much less so than allicin, has anti-tumor properties and strengthens the immune system by stimulating the body to build antibodies.
 
The odor-free water-soluble SAC is great for those in socially sensitive situations who still want the circulatory benefits of garlic but who really don't want the odor of the fat-solubles. In standard dosages SAC has almost no antibiotic or antitumor properties but has excellent circulatory system benefits including lowering blood pressure, blood sugar, triglycerides and total cholesterol and inhibits clotting, preventing strokes and heart attacks. Garlic pickled in vinegar and Kyolic aged garlic extract are sources of SAC.
 
The fat-soluble DADS may be smelly but it is a strong immune system ally in the fight against cancer and also has very strong circulatory system benefits similar to SAC as well. In 1996 Penn State reported that Kazuko Sakamoto, a researcher in their College of Health and Human Development had discovered that DATS and DADS were shown to have success in inhibiting skin, breast and lung cancer cell lines with DATS ten times more effective than DADS. That's very important because the DATS and DADS from crushed cooked garlic circulate in the lymphatic system where they inhibit cancer cells spreading there. In addition, the Diallyl Disulfide in DADS is used by the immune system to manufacture antibodies, which are held together by a disulfide chemical bond, further strengthening the immune system.
 
From the data below, garlic is:
 
Antibacterial - 20 different ways (not counting the action of allicin)
Fungicide - 17 different ways (not counting the action of allicin)
Antiviral - 15 different ways (not counting the action of allicin)
 
There are MANY plant chemicals, vitamins, minerals, etc., that do NOT change or become ineffective when exposed to air or heat...and some that alter into even more beneficial or bioavailable forms.
 
Check out the high levels of sulfur in garlic, it's VAST array of benefits...and how much we need sulphur (please be SURE to read this article in it's entirety! :)  http://www.naturodoc.com/library/medsmats/msm/sulfur.htm
 
This blurb from one of the paragraphs in the link/data above:
Garlic.  Sitting on the shelf, garlic has little biological activity.  But dicing and cooking it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions (starting with oxidation), that lead to more than 100 sulfur-rich chemical compounds, including some sulfur-containing amino acids.  Garlic boosts antioxidant levels in the body, and virtually every form of the food has some health benefits. 
 
***
 
And let's not forget that garlic has GERMANIUM! Germanium is a fantastic "oxygen carrier" (and somewhere on the forum there's a post/thread about the benefits).
 
***
 
Will crushing it in the morning make it less effective in the evening? How does something like Garlic Oil have the powerful effects if the allicin breaks down in just a few hours? Hell by the time it is done setting for the 3 days it will have been long past broken down.  Obviously, crushing it and letting it sit is going to degrade the allicin at some level...but it won't be degraded to half until 18 hours have passed - and that's if it's not mixed with water (and vinegar or alcohol have various effects). Sitting in 100 proof alcoho, means it's sitting in alcohol & water...which is likely one of the reasons that garlic tinctures are still effective (albeit not 'exactly the same as fresh' after sitting for months).
 
Any insight? This is especially pertinant as part of my SuperShot I'm taking 5x daily I have crushed garlic that I put in in the morning. Less effective than crushing it then? It seems to me that your 5x daily Supershot is close to the perfect way to be getting all the possible benefits from garlic!  After reading the information in all the links jboy found & posted, you might want to consider doing the crushing and 'strong raw' ingesting AFTER you're home from work, and having the shots that have been sitting longest before going to work...that might seriously cut down on the odor. Btw, have you tried raw parsley to help with the odor?
We could dedicate a full forum to garlic and never completely know or understand everything about it. The one thing that is certain is that it IS beneficial in any form we ingest it (particularly when it's not isolated/fractionated). Sitting on the counter for a few hours certainly does NOT render it ineffective...and apparently enhances many of the benefits. 
 
This is just another reason this forum (and every person, question, answer & search for answers)  is so valuable. We now have new information that was not available to healers like Schulze/Gerson/Christopher...and now we can see so many of the reasons that their protocols were so successful. I find it PHENOMENAL how Dr. Christopher and Dr. Schulze created these protocols to be so effective without all the 'scientific knowledge' we have now. It goes to show how ULTRA important it is to utilize our full triunity (and the Healing ARTS) for our healing endeavors - not just our brains! 
 
And we must remember, that just like us, they WERE susceptible to the "scientific paradigms" in which they were immersed. For example, we now know that we don't have to 'take a break from Echinacea' (as Dr. Schulze thought 'back then') and this thread is showing that eating garlic raw is not the only way (or maybe not always even the best way) to get all the benefits we can from garlic (as Dr. Schulze occasionally indicated)...although raw garlic obviously has fantastic benefits, and we'd be silly to eliminate it from our protocols with all the empirical evidence we have.
 
It's up to us to continue learning (always understanding that the 'scientific paradigm' that WE'RE immersed in will someday prove to be 'outdated')...and do our best to 'take the healing to a higher level' so we can adequately combat and be victorious over the increased challenges we're facing now! 
 
And we CAN do it! The human body is a miraculous self-healing organism, with healing schematics so advanced that even the most advanced minds & computers still cannot comprehend the intricacies! The faster and more effectively we get our body back to it's natural balance, homeostasis & harmony, the faster and more effectively our body can HEAL!
 
Blessings,
Uny

 

 

From this database:

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/plants.html

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium sativum var. sativum L. (Liliaceae) -- Garlic


Chemicals

 

1,2-(PROP-2-ENYL)-DISULFANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1,2-DIMERCAPTOCYCLOPENTANE Bulb 2.4 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1,2-EPITHIOPROPANE Bulb 0.1 - 1.66 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1,3-DITHIANE Bulb 0.08 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1-HEXANOL Bulb 0.23 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1-METHYL-1,2-(PROP-2-ENYL)-DISULFANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1-METHYL-2-(PROP-2-ENYL)-DISULFANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

1-METHYL-3-(PROP-2-ENYL)-TRISULFANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

2,3,4-TRITHIAPENTANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

2,5-DIMETHYL-TETRAHYDROTHIOPHENE Bulb 0.6 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

2-METHYL-BENZALDEHYDE Bulb 0.1 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

2-PROPEN-1-OL Bulb 0.1 - 121 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

2-VINYL-4H-1,3-DITHIIN Bulb 2 - 29 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant DUKE1992B ; Antithrombotic 411 ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=144 ug/ml ATH94:79 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

24-METHYLENE-CYCLOARTENOL Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

3,5-DIETHYL-1,2,4-TRITHIOLANE Bulb 0.15 - 43 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

3-METHYL-2-CYCLOPENTENE-1-THIONE Bulb 0.16 - 1.6 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

3-VINYL-4H-1,2-DITHIIN Bulb 0.34 - 10.65 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

4-METHYL-5-VINYLTHIAZOLE Bulb 0.75 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

5-BUTYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ADENOSINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Analgesic; Antiaggregant PMP25:56 ; Antiarrhythmic M11 ; Antidiuretic LAW ; Antiendotoxic 500 mg/kg ipr mus BBE ; Antihypertensive LAW ; Antiinsomniac DUKE1992B ; Antilipolytic PM56(1):27 ; Antispasmodic; Antitachycardic 50-250 ug/kg/ivn M29 ; Anxiolytic X10193200 ; Arteriodilator DUKE1992B ; Glucogonogenic LAW ; Hypocholesterolemic LAW ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:167 ; Hypotensive LAW ; Immunomodulator POP:148 ; Insulinic PM56(1):27 ; Laxative AEH74 ; Lipolytic LAW ; Myorelaxant LAF ; PAF-Inhibitor 0.024 ug/ml POP:148 IC50=90 nM POP:148 ; Pyrogenic 0.09 mg/kg ivn hmn ASC129:387 ; Respirastimulant M29 ; Secretomotor AEH74 ; Sedative LAF ; Vasodilator FT61:209

 

AJOENE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant 90-100 uM; Antiallergic JN131:1075 ; Antibacterial MIC=55-150 ug/ml LAW ; Antiherpetic X1470664 ; AntiHIV X9755820 ; Antiinflammatory PJB1(2):259 ; Antileukemic 40 uM; Antileukotriene PJB1(2):259 ; Antilymphomic JN131:1027 ; Antimalarial 50 mg/kg; Antimetastatic SPI ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antimycotic PAL:96 ; Antiplatelet 90-100 uM; Antiproliferant X9049657 ; Antiprostaglandin; Antiseptic X9755820 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=55 ug/ml LAW ; Antistomatitic X1470664 ; Antithrombotic; Antitrypanosomic LAW ; Antitumor X9495804 ; Antitumor (Colon) JN131:1027 ; Antiviral X9755820 ; Apoptotic 40 uM; Candidicide MIC 70 ug/ml LAW ; Candidistat <20 ug/ml X3555334 ; COX-2-Inhibitor X11239502 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PJB1(2):259 ; Cytostatic SPI ; Cytotoxic 2-50 ug/ml X2208068 ; Fungicide IC100=100 ug/ml CJB68:1354 ; Fungistat <20 ug/ml X3555334 ; Gram(+)icide X9648236 ; Gram(-)icide X9648236 ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=234 ug/ml ATH94:79 IC50=9 uM X8011681 ; Lipolytic; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor; NF-kB-Inducer X9495804 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=2.5-5 uM X9712340 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor HG25:26 ; Protisticide LAW ; Tineacide X11239502 ; Trypanocide LAW

 

ALANINE Bulb 1,320 - 3,168 ppm DUKE1992A
Antioxidant PC27:969 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Oxidant PC27:969

 

ALLICIN Bulb 1,500 - 27,800 ppm DUKE1992A
Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor 500 uM LAW ; Allergenic AEH74 ; Amebicide 30 ug/ml PR4:137 ; Anthelmintic LAW ; Antiaggregant 0.1-1 uM; Antiatherosclerotic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW ; Antibacterial 500 ug/ml 452 MIC=27 ug/ml LAW ; Antibiotic PM56:691 ; Anticholinesterase 500 uM LAW ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antiflu PJB1(2):260 ; Antiglaucomic LAW ; Antiherpetic PJB1(2):260 ; Antihypertensive JBH ; Antiinflammatory PM56:665 ; Antileukemic 31+ uM; Antileukotriene PJB1(2):260 ; Antilymphomic JN131:1027S ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuralgic LAW ; Antioxidant 1.8 ug/ml LAW ; Antiplatelet PAL:96 ; Antiproliferant JN131:1027S ; Antiprostaglandin IC67=50 uM JNP54:1541 ; Antiradicular 1.8 ug/ml LAW ; Antisarcomic PJB1(2):260 ; Antiseptic PAL:96 ; Antishigellic JNP67:374 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=27 ug/ml LAW ; Antitriglyceride 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW ; Antitubercular MIC=1.67 mg/ml PR14:303 ; Antitumor LEL ; Antiviral LAW ; Apoptotic 31+ uM BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=56 uM gpg K29404 ; Candidicide MIC 7 ug/ml LAW ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PJB1(2):260 ; Fungicide PR4:137 ; Gram(+)icide 8-12 ppm LAW ; Gram(-)icide LAW ; Hepatotoxic 100 mg/kg/day (=500 cloves a day) LAW ; Hypocholesterolemic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn LAW IC37-72=162 ug/ml ATH94:79 IC50=9 uM X8011681 ; Hypoglycemic 0.1 mg/kg; Hypolipidemic ID50=10 uM PM56:691 ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Insecticide DUKE1992B ; Insulin-Sparing 100 mg/kg/man PAM ; Larvicide DUKE1992B ; Lipolytic 4-6 mg/day LAW ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor ED=25 ug/ml PM56:665 ; Mucokinetic ACM:198 ; Mycobactericide MIC=1.67 mg/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide LAW ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=2.5-5 uM X9712340 ; Papain-Inhibitor 500 uM LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic LAW ; Prooxidant LAW ; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor M18398 ; Succinate-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor LAW ; Trichomonicide 411 ; Urease-Inhibitor LAW ; Vibriocide IWU ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor LAW

 

ALLIIN Bulb 5,000 - 10,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant IC100=60 ug/ml; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antibiotic DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antihepatotoxic 0.5 ug/ml LAW ; Antineuralgic LAW ; Antioxidant JN131:972S ; Antiplatelet PAL:96 ; Antiradicular ABS ; Antisarcomic 1-3 mg ims rat LAW ; Antithrombotic JBH ; Antitumor LAW ; Hepatoprotective WO3 ; Hypocholesterolemic HG23:9 ; Hypoglycemic LAW ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Lipolytic 200 mg/kg orl rat LAW 7-11 mg/day LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic LAW ; Squalene-Monooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=120 uM/l JN131:1662

 

ALLIINASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ALLISATIN Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ALLISTATIN-I Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

ALLISTATIN-II Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

ALLIXIN Bulb: DUKE1992A
Anticancer PAL:63 ; Antimutagenic PAL:63 ; Antioxidant JN131:1010S ; Antipromoter PAL:63 ; Antitumor PAL:63 ; Chemopreventive PAL:96

 

ALLYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Allergenic M&R55

 

ALLYL-METHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Anticancer (Stomach); Antitumor (Stomach)

 

ALLYL-METHYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant 0.1-1 uM EMP5:332 ; Anticancer (Stomach); Antitumor (Stomach)

 

ALLYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 36 - 216 ppm DUKE1992A
Hypoglycemic EMP6:161 ; Insulin-Sparing 125 mg/kg/man PAM ; Occuloirritant M&R55

 

ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antibacterial CWW ; Antistaphylococcic CWW ; Dermal JBH ; Emetic PJB1(1) ; FLavor FEMA 10-130 ARC ; Fungicide HH2 ; Insectiphile PEP ; Irritant JBH ; Laxative PJB1(1) ; Perfumery JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

ALPHA-PROSTAGLANDIN-F-1 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ALPHA-PROSTAGLANDIN-F-2 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antianginal PIL ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antiasthmatic PIL ; Antiatherosclerotic DIA ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticonvulsant Synergen FT66:507 ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic DIA ; Antiinfarctal DIA ; Antiinfertility PIL ; Antiischemic PIL ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuropathic PIL ; Antioxidant 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 IC34=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiparkinsonian PIL ; Antiradicular 5 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic PIL ; Antistroke PIL ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor (Bladder) PIL ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitumor (Stomach) PIL ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Cancer-Preventive JAF47:397 ; Cardioprotective; Circulotonic; Immunomodulator PIL

 

ALUMINUM Bulb 52 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antisilicotic MPT ; Antivaginitic MAR ; Candidicide MAR ; Encephalopathic M29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

ANILINE Bulb 10 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ARACHIDONIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X1637346 ; Antidermatitic M11 ; Antieczemic M11 ; Antileukotriene-B4 POP:149 ; Antipsoriatic WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Coagulant JN126:1076S ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant JN126:1076S ; Insulinogenic EMP6:170 ; Myocontractant JN126:1076S ; Pyrogenic 100 ug/kg rbt EXP33:1626

 

ARGININE Bulb 6,340 - 15,216 ppm DUKE1992A
Antidiabetic? WIC ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiimpotence JMF1(3) ; Antiinfertility 4 g/day WER ; Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Aphrodisiac 3 g/day; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Hypoammonemic JBH ; NO-Genic JMF1(3) ; Pituitary-Stimulant PJB1(2):260 ; Spermigenic 4 g/day WER ; Vasodilator NP6:1

 

ASCORBIC-ACID Bulb 100 - 788 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 440 - 3,793 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 390 - 2,868 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 420 - 1,883 ppm DUKE1992A
Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM

 

ASH Bulb 10,000 - 395,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 6,000 - 52,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 10,000 - 74,000 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 7,000 - 31,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ASPARTIC-ACID Bulb 4,890 - 11,736 ppm DUKE1992A
Antimorphinic MAR ; Neuroexcitant MAR ; Roborant M11

 

BETA-CAROTENE Bulb 0.17 ppm; DUKE1992A Flower 0.6 - 5 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 9 - 68 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 2 - 9 ppm DUKE1992A
Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH

 

BETA-PHELLANDRENE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Expectorant JBH ; Fungicide HH2 ; Perfumery M11

 

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A
Androgenic DUKE1992B ; Angiogenic X11988857 ; Anorexic MAR ; Antiadenomic M11 ; Antiandrogenic JE28:221 ; Antibacterial QJC28:155 ; Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95 ; Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160 ; Antiestrogenic JE28:221 ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antifertility JE28:221 ; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic PJB1(2):287 ; Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287 ; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiprogestational JE28:221 ; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291 ; Antiprostatadenomic M11 ; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic HDN ; Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95 ; Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287 ; Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Apoptotic X17350814 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide QJC28:155 ; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014 ; Estrogenic PHM9:52 ; Febrifuge HDN ; Gonadotrophic JE28:221 ; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60 ; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR ; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermicide JE28:221 ; Ubiquiot JBH ; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

 

BETA-TOCOPHEROL Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

BIOTIN Bulb 22 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antialopecic JLR1(2) ; Antidermatitic 3 mg/2x/day PAM ; Antineuralgic JN127:710 ; Antiseborrheic PAM

 

BORON Bulb 3 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A
Androgenic 3 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Antiosteoarthritic WER ; Antiosteoporotic DUKE1992B ; Estrogenic DUKE1992B

 

CAFFEIC-ACID Bulb 20 ppm; DUKE1992A
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB

 

CALCIUM Bulb 180 - 4,947 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 250 - 2,155 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 580 - 4,265 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 120 - 538 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1

 

CALCIUM-OXALATE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Emetic PJB1(1):169 ; Inflammatory PJB1(1):169 ; Laxative PJB1(1):169 ; Lithogenic PJB1(1):169

 

CARBOHYDRATES Bulb 274,000 - 851,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 94,000 - 810,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 95,000 - 699,000 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 201,000 - 901,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210

 

CHOLINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

 

CHROMIUM Bulb 2.5 - 15 ppm DUKE1992A
Amphiglycemic? DAS ; Antiacne MPP ; AntiAGE 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Antiaging SYN-X ; Antiatherosclerotic 20 ug/day; AntiCFS 200 ug TE2 ; Anticorneotic DAS ; Antidiabetic 200-1,000 ug; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antifatigue 200 ug TE2 ; Antiglycosuric 200-1,000 ug; Antiobesity SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 200-800 ug SYN-X ; Antitriglyceride 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Energizer HYL ; Hypocholesterolemic 20 ug/day WER 200-1,000 ug SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive SYN-X ; Immunomodulator HYL ; Insulinogenic DUKE1992B ; Memorigenic HYL

 

CIS-AJOENE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

CITRAL Bulb: DUKE1992A
Allergenic; Antiallergenic; Antiallergic KCH ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):266 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer X15931590 ; Antihelicobacter X14506036 ; Antiherpetic X17199238 ; Antihistaminic KCH ; Antiinflammatory X18409048 ; Antileishmanic; Antioxidant X12615076 ; Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol; Antishock KCH ; Antispasmodic TEU ; Antitumor; Antitumor (Colon) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Liver) X17199238 ; Antitumor (Skin) X17199238 ; Antiulcer X14506036 ; Antiviral X17199238 ; Apoptotic; Barbituate-Synergist PJB1(2):266 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Calcium-Antagonist X18484528 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic X12637974 ; Caspase-3-Inducer X15931590 ; Chemopreventive; Cytotoxic X19876560 ; Estrogenic X12495555 ; Expectorant KCH ; FLavor FEMA 4-170 ARC ; Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml; Glaucomagenic JAR10:7 ; Glutathionigenic; Herbicide IC50=115 uM TOX ; Myorelaxant 200 mg/kg; Nematicide IC52=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=100-260 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X18409048 ; NO-Inhibitor X18409048 ; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=1.19 uM X9242356 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms JAR10:7 ; Sedative 1 mg/kg TEU ED 1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446 ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Trypanocide X17686189 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1,500 uM JAF51:2837 ID50=1.5 mM JAF47:4574

 

COBALT Bulb 0.5 - 100 ppm DUKE1992A
Cardiomyopathogenic DAS ; Erythrocytogenic DAS

 

COPPER Bulb 4.8 - 9.7 ppm DUKE1992A
Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS

 

CYCLOALLIIN Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant LAF ; Fibrinolytic LAF ; Lachrymatory DUKE1992B

 

CYSTINE Bulb 650 - 1,560 ppm DUKE1992A
Adjuvant M11 ; Antihomocystinuric M29

 

DESGALACTOTIGONIN Root 400 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antitumor CCO

 

DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

DIALLYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 16 - 613 ppm DUKE1992A
Allergenic AEH74 ; Antibacterial MIC=900-1,900 ug/ml LAW ; AntiHIV LAW ; Antilipemic KCH ; Antioxidant JN131:972S ; Antiproliferative 0.5 mg mus 3x/week JN126(5):1355 ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=900 ug/ml LAW ; Antitumor 0.5 mg mus 3x/week JN126(5):1355 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antiviral LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor JAR9(4):182 ; Avifuge LAW ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; FLavor FEMA 5-8 ARC ; Fungicide JBH ; GT-Inducer 0.3 mg/kg NUC34(1):42 ; Hemolytic LAW ; Hypocholesterolemic LAW ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant LAW ; Insecticide LC50=280-340 ppm JAF36:1052 ; Insectifuge LAW ; Larvicide MAR ; Lipolytic LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 0.3 mg/kg NUC34(1):42

 

DIALLYL-SULFIDE Bulb 2 - 99 ppm DUKE1992A
Antibacterial MIC=>2,500 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:179 ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Antimutagenic ABS ; Antioxidant; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic LAW ; Antitumor HG20:24 ; Antitumor (Colon) >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Antitumor (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg LAW ; Antitumor (Intestine) LAW ; Antitumor (Liver) LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) LAW ; Antitumor (Stomach) LAW ; Arylamine-N-Acetyltransferase-Inhibitor >10 uM JAR9(4):182 ; Cancer-Preventive (Esophagus) 200 mg/kg ABS ; Cytochrome-P450-2E1-Inhibitor PAL:178 ; FLavor FEMA 1-50 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic IC37-72=146 ug/ml ATH94:79 ; Lipolytic 12 mg/kg LAW ; Occuloirritant M&R55 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective LAW ; Triglycerolytic LAW

 

DIALLYL-TETRASULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antibacterial MIC=>130-1,000 ug/ml LAW ; Antioxidant WO3 ; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=130 ug/ml LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

DIALLYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb 10 - 1,061 ppm DUKE1992A
Amebicide LAW ; Antibacterial MIC=250-1,900 ug/ml LAW ; Anticancer (Stomach) PAL:179 ; Anticryptococcic LAW ; Antifertility LAW ; Antiflu LAW ; Antigiardial LAW ; Antiherpetic LAW ; Antimeningitic LAW ; Antioxidant; Antipneumonic LAW ; Antiseptic LAW ; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml LAW ; Antitrypanosomic LAW ; Antitumor (Lung) 1 uM BO2 ; Antitumor (Stomach); Antiviral LAW ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Insecticide LAW ; Insectiphile LAW ; Larvicide LAW ; Lipolytic LAW ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide LAW ; Spermicide LAW ; Trypanosomastat LAW

 

DIGALACTOSYL-DIGLYCERIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

DIMETHYL-DIFURAN Bulb 5 - 30 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

DIMETHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 0.6 - 2.5 ppm DUKE1992A
Antithyroid PEP ; Perfumery Fragrance ZEB

 

DIMETHYL-SULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
FLavor FEMA 0.1-2 ARC ; Irritant ZEB

 

DIMETHYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb 0.8 - 19 ppm JAF37:729
No activity reported.

 

EICOSAPENTAENOIC-ACID Bulb: DUKE1992A
5-HETE-Inhibitor BO2 ; Antiarthritic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherotic DUKE1992B ; Antidermatitic 1-4 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antifibrosarcomic IC50=1 uM BO2 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=57 uM; Antiischemic HSC25:1523 ; Antileukemic 10 uM BO2 ; Antileukotriene-B4 IC50=2 uM BO2 IC50=57 uM POP:153 ; Antimelanomic IC50=1 uM BO2 ; Antimetastatic 6,000 mg/kg BO2 ; Antiproliferant 120 uM BO2 ; Antitumor DUKE1992B ; Collagenase-Inhibitor 1 uM BO2 ; COX-2-Inhibitor BO2 ; Differentiator 120 uM BO2 ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Nephroprotective HSC25:1523 ; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor X12401440 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

 

EO Bulb 600 - 3,600 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

FAT Bulb 2,000 - 12,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 2,000 - 17,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 5,000 - 37,000 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 3,000 - 13,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

FERULIC-ACID Bulb 27 ppm; DUKE1992A
Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620

 

FIBER Bulb 7,000 - 39,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 8,000 - 69,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 18,000 - 132,000 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 17,000 - 76,000 ppm DUKE1992A
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiobesity DUKE1992B ; Antitumor PAM ; Antiulcer PAM ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive 10 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Hypouricemic X12350076 ; Laxative DUKE1992B ; Vasodilator NP6:1

 

FOLIACIN Bulb 1 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

FRUCTOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antialcoholic JBH ; Antidiabetic JBH ; Antihangover DUKE1992B ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antinauseant JBH ; Laxative AJC62:1212 ; Neoplastic CRC ; Sweetener 2 x glucose JBH

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-ISOLEUCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-L-LEUCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-L-PHENYLALANINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-L-VALINE Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-METHIONINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-(2-CARBOXY-1-PROPYL)-CYSTEINEGLYCINE Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-ALLYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-ALLYL-MERCAPTO-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-BETA-CARBOXY-BETA-METHYL-ETHYL-CYSTEINYL-GLYCINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-METHYL-L-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GAMMA-L-GLUTAMYL-S-PROPYL-L-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GERANIOL Bulb: DUKE1992A
Allergenic; Anthelmintic MAD ; Antibacterial MBC=800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antisalmonella MIC=400 ug/ml JNP49:5750 ; Antiseptic 400-800 ug/ml JNP49:5750 7 x phenol W&W MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitubercular PR14:303 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Mycobactericide MIC=64 ug/ml PR14:303 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

 

GERMANIUM Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GIBBERELLIN-A-3 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GIBBERELLIN-A-7 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GITONIN Root 300 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GLUCOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Acetylcholinergic DUKE1992B ; Antiedemic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic M11 ; Antiketotic M11 ; Antivaricose JBH ; Hyperglycemic M11 ; Memory-Enhancer SN138:189.1990

 

GLUTAMIC-ACID Bulb 8,050 - 19,320 ppm DUKE1992A
Antialkali? 500-1,000 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antiepileptic DUKE1992B ; Antihyperammonemic M29 ; Antilithic PAM ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antiretardation JBH ; Anxiolytic M11 ; Neurotoxic JBH

 

GLUTATHIONE Bulb: DUKE1992A
ACE-Inhibitor IC50=3.2 ug/ml LAB54 ; Anticytotoxic PM56(2):190 ; Antidote (Heavy Metals) M29 ; Antieczemic M29 ; Antihepatitic M29 ; Antioxidant PM56(6):666 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

 

GLYCEROL-SULFOQUINOVOSIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

GLYCINE Bulb 2,000 - 4,800 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiacid M29 ; Antialdosteronic PAM ; Antidote (Hypoglycin-A) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antigastritic M29 ; Antiprostatitic 125-250 mg 3 x/day WER ; Antipruritic M11 ; Antisickling PM56(1):41 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Neuroinhibitor WER ; Uricosuric DUKE1992B

 

GUANOSINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

HEXA-1,5-DIENYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

HEXOKINASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

HISTIDINE Bulb 1,130 - 2,712 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiarteriosclerotic JE26:80 ; Antinephritic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiulcer JE26:80 ; Antiuremic JBH ; Essential JBH ; Oxidant PC27:976

 

IODINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Acnegenic DAS ; Antibacterial AHP146 ; Antigoiter DAS ; Antiseptic AHP146 ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Antiviral AHP146 ; Dermatitigenic DAS ; Fungicide AHP146 ; Goitrogenic DAS ; Hyperthyroid >1 mm/day/diet AHP146 ; Protisticide AHP146 ; Thyrotropic DAS

 

IRON Bulb 15 - 129 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 9 - 78 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 6 - 44 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 17 - 76 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

 

ISOBUTYL-ISOTHIOCYANATE Bulb 0.14 - 25 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ISOLEUCINE Bulb 2,170 - 5,208 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiencephalopathic? M29 ; Antipellagric MAR ; Essential JBH

 

KAEMPFEROL Plant: DUKE1992A
11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=20; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM JBC8:211 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=3.28 ppm X11714299 IC50=8.73 uM X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM; Antiallergic RWG122 ; Antibacterial 20 ug/ml; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifertility 250 mg/kg/day/60 days/orl rat PMP23:193 ; Antigingivitic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiherpetic 23-92 ug/ml JNP55:1732 ; Antihistaminic 411 ; Antiimplantation JE32:175 ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg DUKE1992B 200 mg/kg ipr rat DUKE1992B ; Antileukemic IC50=3.1 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antilymphocytic JBH ; Antimutagenic ID50=10-40 nM PCF ; Antioxidant 3/4 quercetin JAF49:3653 IC50=1.2 ug/ml JAF50:3150 IC50=40 uM PC27:972 ; Antiperiodontic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplaque JNP59:987 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic 20 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiserotonin 200 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3 ; Antispasmodic 411 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:774 ; Antiulcer 50-200 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiviral 23-92 ug/ml; Apoptotic 60 uM X10673981 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor IC12=1 uM/l JMF2:235 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor AFR27:180 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic ZUL ; Choleretic LAF ; Copper-Chelator X10976523 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX:50 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM) =20; Cytotoxic JAF50:850 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Diuretic BJP3:10 ; Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 EC50=0.56 uM X10923837 ; Fungicide 20 ug/ml FNF ; Hepatoprotective IC50=1.30 ppm X11714299 IC50=5.46 uM X11714299 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=50-150 ug/ml JNP54:142 ; Hypotensive FT1990:508 ; ICAM-1-Inhibitor X15322261 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 IC50=<15 uM X10506109 ; Inotropic X10404425 ; Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor JBH ; JNK-Inhibitor X15322261 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JBH ; MAO-Inhibitor X10813558 ; Mutagenic; Natriuretic BJP3:10 ; Neuroprotective X10813558 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=13.9 uM X15832817 ; PAF-Inhibitor FT67:548 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide PR13:102 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 3 uM; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.99 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor TIH14:223 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=8.1 ug/ml JNP58:217 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=230 uM; Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l JMF2:227 ; Vasodilator JAFC48:220

 

KILOCALORIES Bulb 1,170 - 3,630 /kg DUKE1992A Flower 390 - 3,366 /kg DUKE1992A Leaf 440 - 3,240 /kg DUKE1992A Shoot 760 - 3,410 /kg DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

LEUCINE Bulb 3,050 - 7,392 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential JBH

 

LINALOL Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

LINOLENIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

LYSINE Bulb 2,730 - 6,552 ppm DUKE1992A
Antialkalotic M29 ; Antiherpetic 0.5-3 g/day; Essential JBH ; Hypoarginanemic 250 mg/kg M29

 

MAGNESIUM Bulb 240 - 1,210 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

 

MANGANESE Bulb 5.4 - 15.3 ppm DUKE1992A
Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

 

METHIONINE Bulb 760 - 1,824 ppm DUKE1992A
Anticataract PAM ; Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl M29 ; Antidote (Paracetamol) M29 ; Antieczemic JE26:80 ; Antihepatotic JBH ; Antioxidant PC27:976 ; Antiparkinsonian 1-5 g/day WER ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Emetic M29 ; Essential JBH ; Glutathionigenic M29 ; Hepatoprotective ACN:207 ; Lipotropic M11 ; Urine-Acidifier 200 mg/3x/day/man/orl MAR ; Urine-Deodorant M29

 

METHYL-ALLYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 6 - 104 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

METHYL-ALLYL-SULFIDE Bulb 0.5 - 4.6 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

METHYL-ALLYL-TRISULFIDE Bulb 6 - 279 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant HG23:9

 

METHYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 0.03 - 0.66 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

MONOGALACTOSYL-DIGLYCERIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

MYROSINASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

NIACIN Bulb 4 - 17 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 4 - 34 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 6 - 44 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 5 - 22 ppm DUKE1992A
Allergenic WER ; Antiacrodynic DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic 50 mg/2x/day WER ; Antialzheimeran PIL ; Antiamblyopic DUKE1992B ; Antianginal DUKE1992B ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Antichilblain JBH ; Anticonvulsant 3 g/day WER ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidermatitic DAS ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidysphagic DUKE1992B ; Antiepileptic WER ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antihistaminic 50 mg 2x/day WER ; Antihyperactivity 1.5-6 g/day WER ; Antiinsomnic 1 g/day WER ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day; AntiMeniere's JAD ; Antineuralgic DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/day WER ; Antipellagric DAS ; AntiRaynaud's 1,500-4,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiscotomic DUKE1992B ; Antispasmodic 100 mg 2x/day WER ; Antivertigo DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Circulotonic PIL ; Fibrinolytic MPP ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Hepatotoxic PIL ; Hypocholesterolemic 50-100 mg 3x/day; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypolipidemic RWG:17 ; Sedative PAM ; Serotoninergic PAM ; Vasodilator M29

 

NICKEL Bulb 1.5 - 1.7 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiadrenalinic DAS ; Anticirrhotic? DAS ; Insulin-Sparing DAS

 

NICOTINIC-ACID Bulb 4.8 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antichilblain 50 mg/3x/day DAS ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidote (pesticides) DAS ; Antischizophrenic DAS ; Antithyrotoxic DAS ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic 1-6 g/man/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic EMP6:157 ; Lipolytic DAS

 

OLEANOLIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161

 

OLEIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic M&R495 ; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor X12033503 ; Anemiagenic DUKE1992B ; Antialopecic X12033503 ; Antiandrogenic X12033503 ; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM POP:153 ; Antileukotriene-D4 POP:153 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic 5 ml/man DUKE1992B ; Dermatitigenic M&R495 ; FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC ; Hypocholesterolemic GAS ; Insectifuge 382 ; Irritant M11 ; Percutaneostimulant CPB38:3086 ; Perfumery ARC ; Propecic X12033503

 

ORNITHINE Leaf: DUKE1992A
Anticholesteremic M11 ; Antidote (Ammonia) M29 ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Hypoammonemic M29 ; Hypoarginanemic M29

 

P-COUMARIC-ACID Bulb 58 ppm; DUKE1992A
Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allelopathic JBH ; Antibacterial PHZ46:156 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antifertility AEHD1:84 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antinitrosaminic JNU ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antispasmodic CAN ; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Cytotoxic JBH ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Fungicide NIG ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM JAF51:2837

 

P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
Antibacterial POP:58 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PCF:65 ; Antiradicular PMID10616967 ; Antisickling 10.5 ug/ml; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungistat EC50=607 ug/ml NIG ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin NIG ; Prostaglandigenic JBH ; Secretogogue CAN ; Ubiquiot JBH

 

PEROXIDASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PHENYLALANINE Bulb 1,830 - 4,392 ppm DUKE1992A
AntiADD 587 mg/day/orl M29 ; Antidepressant 50-4,000 mg/day/man; Antiparkinsonian 200-500 mg/day/man MAR ; Antisickling 690 ug/ml; Antivitiligic 100 mg/kg/day/orl/man M29 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Tremorigenic 1,600-12,600 mg/man/day MAR

 

PHLOROGLUCINOL Plant: DUKE1992A
Antiseptic PMP23:54 ; Antispasmodic 480 mg/day/orl man M29 ; Antitumor-Promoter CPB38:2737 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Decalcifier M11 ; Fungicide PC29(4):1093 ; Goitrogenic AFR27:188 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

PHOSPHATIDYL-CHOLINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antialzheimeran 10-25 g/day/orl; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM

 

PHOSPHATIDYL-ETHANOLAMINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PHOSPHATIDYL-INOSITOL Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PHOSPHATIDYL-SERINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PHOSPHORUS Bulb 880 - 5,220 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 460 - 3,966 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 460 - 3,382 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 520 - 2,332 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiosteoporotic DAS ; Anxiolytic WAF ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Osteogenic DAS

 

PHYTIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
Antiaggregant LAF ; Anticancer JAF44:2663 ; Antioxidant JAF44:2663 ; Antitumor JAF44:2663 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JAF44:2663 ; Hypocalcemic Sodium phytate M11 ; Hypocholesterolemic JAF44:2663 ; Hypolipidemic JAF44:2663

 

POTASSIUM Bulb 3,730 - 13,669 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 3,260 - 23,971 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 2,730 - 12,242 ppm DUKE1992A
Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1

 

PROLINE Bulb 1,000 - 2,400 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROP-2-ENYL-DISULFANE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROPENE Bulb 0.01 - 6 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROPENETHIOL Bulb 1 - 41 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-A-1 Bulb: DUKE1992A
Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Hypotensive MAR

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-A-2 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-B-1 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-B-2 Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-E-1 Bulb: DUKE1992A
Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Vasodilator M11

 

PROSTAGLANDIN-E-2 Bulb: DUKE1992A
Abortifacient M11 ; Oxytocic M11 ; Tumor-Promoter HG25:26

 

PROTEIN Bulb 35,000 - 179,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 14,000 - 121,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 26,000 - 191,000 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 12,000 - 54,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROTODEGALACTOTIGONIN Bulb 10 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PROTOERUBOSIDE-B Bulb 100 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PSEUDOSCORIDININE-A Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

PSEUDOSCORIDININE-B Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

QUERCETIN Bulb 200 ppm; DUKE1992A
11B-HSD-Inhibitor CPT59:62 ; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 IC50=0.344 uM ZZZ18:623 IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic JBH ; Analgesic FT63(3):197 ; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM X11714299 IC50=7.5 ppm X11714299 ; Antiaggregant 30 uM JAF45:4505 IC50=55 uM EMP5:333 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM JIM127:546 ; Antialzheimeran COX ; Antianaphylactic PR4(5):201 ; Antiangiogenic EJP459:255 ; Antiarthritic COX ; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic X11020457 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM MED ; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Anticataract PM56(3):258 ; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day PAM ; Anticomplementary JNP65:1457 ; AntiCrohn's PAM ; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks X11272677 ; Antidepressant JMF6:391 ; Antidermatitic PAM ; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Antiencephalitic EMP5:199 ; Antiescherichic X10857921 ; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet 438 ; Antifibrosarcomic JAF45:4505 ; Antiflu V&D ; Antigastric RR21:85 ; Antigonadotropic JBH ; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):171 ; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV JNP60(9):884 ; Antihydrophobic V&D ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg FT5:1990 ; Antileishmanic IC50=64 JNP65:1457 ; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM BO2 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 IC50=>10 ug/ml LS55:1061 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml MPT ; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic BO2 ; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml X14586095 ID50=2-5 nM PCF ; Antimyocarditic EMP5:199 ; Antinitrosaminic PAL:339 ; Antinociceptive PR14:40 ; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E BO2 ED50=2.3 uM PR14:93 IC47=10 uM JMF5:1 IC96=300 ppm PCF ; Antipancreatitic JNU ; Antiperiodontal PAM ; Antiperistaltic X14646351 ; Antipermeability DUKE1992B ; Antiperoxidant PM57:A110 ; Antipharyngitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64 JNP65:1457 ; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn PAM ; Antipodriac; Antipolio PAM ; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid PCF:51 ; Antiprostatitic JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM PM56(6):695 ; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithrombic PAL:339 ; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13 JNP65:1457 ; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Breast) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF45:4505 ; Antitumor (Lung) X10918203 ; Antitumor (Ovary) JNM7:51 ; Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM BO2 ; Antitumor-Promoter PAM ; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml JNP55:1732 IC50=10 uM EMP5:225 ; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor NIG ; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml QRNM(SUMMER):91 ; Bradycardiac KCH ; Calmodulin-Antagonist PAM ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide X10857921 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus NIG ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; COMT-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM BO2 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor X11752233 ; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml PM56(6):677 IC82=100 ug/ml PM57:A113 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Diaphoretic? LRN-DEC90 ; Differentiator 5.5 uM BO2 ; Estrogenic 10% genistein B02 ; Fungicide X10857921 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml JAF48:5666 ; Hemostat KCH ; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective FT67:200 ; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml JNP53(5):1239 ; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat JE27:243 ; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic X10404425 ; Insulinogenic PAM ; Juvabional 438 ; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM JAF38:688 IC50=0.1-5 uM DFN:154 ; MAO-A-Inhibitor QRNM1997:293 ; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer DUKE1992B ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) PR14:93 ; Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM BO2 ; Mutagenic HG22:27 ; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM X10723772 ; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor X15180920 ; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM X15832817 IC>50=125 uM JAF50:850 ; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM FNF ; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM FNF ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; PGE2-Inhibitor X12144868 ; Phospholipase-Inhibitor BJP3:10 ; Plasmodicide HDN ; Proliferant X12224631 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml PR11:281 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor PCF:14 ; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM BO2 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM CLE120:213 ; Teratologic DUKE1992B ; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM JMF6:365 ; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM BO2 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM BO2 ; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr 505 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor EMP6:170 ; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor X16737615 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM PM69:1125 IC50=10.6 ug/ml X12591129 IC50=>0.4 ug/ml CPB38:1772

 

QUERCETIN-3-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
Antiinflammatory PM56(6):660 ; Cancer-Preventive 525

 

RAFFINOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Flatugenic PFH46:77

 

RIBOFLAVIN Bulb 0.5 - 3 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 0.6 - 5.2 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.4 - 10.3 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 0.6 - 2.7 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiarabiflavinotic 2-10 mg/day orl MAR ; Anticarpal-Tunnel 50 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 15 mg/day WER ; Anticephalagic PIL ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1.6-10 mg/day WAF ; Anticheilitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antikeratitic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme 50 mg/day KEn ; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant PIL ; Antipellagric DUKE1992B ; Antiphotophobic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 525

 

RUTIN Plant: DUKE1992A
5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

 

S-(2-CARBOXY-PROPYL)-GLUTATHIONE Bulb 92.5 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-ALLO-MERCAPTO-CYSTEINE Bulb 2 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-ALLYL-CYSTEINE Bulb 10 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-ALLYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antiatherogenic IJE33:337 ; Antioxidant IJE33:337 ; Antiperoxidant IJE33:337 ; Hypocholesterolemic IJE33:337 ; Lipolytic IJE33:337

 

S-ETHYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-METHYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-METHYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antidiabetic PM61:72 ; Antihypercholesterolemic WO3

 

S-METHYL-L-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Hypocholesterolemic 200-400 mg/kg LAW ; Lipolytic 200 mg/kg orl rat LAW

 

S-PROPENYL-CYSTEINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

S-PROPYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SAPONIN Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SATIVOSIDE-B-1 Bulb 30 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SATIVOSIDE-R-1 Root 500 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SATIVOSIDE-R-2 Root 300 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORDINE Bulb 250 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORDININ-A Bulb 39,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORODININ-A-1 Bulb 67 - 30,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORODININ-A-2 Bulb 250 - 8,000 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORODININ-B Bulb 800 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORODININE-A-3 Bulb 333 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SCORODOSE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

SELENIUM Bulb: DUKE1992A
Analgesic 200 ug/day WER ; Anorexic 52 ; Antiacne WER ; Antiaggregant PAM ; Antiangiogenic 2 uM BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 ; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic MPP ; Antiatherosclerotic MPP ; Anticataract 400 ug/day MPP ; Anticirrhotic DAS ; Anticlimacteric 200 ug/day WAF ; Anticoronary; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidepressant WAF ; Antidote (Mercury) DAS ; Antifibrotic 400 ug WAF ; Antigout 200 ug WAF ; AntiHIV; Antikeshan DAS ; Antileukemic 1.6 mg/kg ipr mus BO2 ; Antileukotriene PAM ; Antimaculitic; Antimelanomic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimenopausal 200 ug/day WAF ; Antimetastatic 480 ug/kg BO2 ; Antimyalgic 200 ug/day WER ; AntiNF-kB BO2 ; Antiosteoarthritic HSC25:1487 ; Antioxidant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day; Antiparkinsonian 200-400 ug/day WAF ; Antiproliferant 2 uM BO2 ; Antiradicular 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antisyndrome-X SYN-X ; Antitumor SYN-X ; Antitumor (brain) 38-150 ug/kg BO2 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.8 mg/kg scu mus BO2 150 ug/kg diet rat BO2 230 ug/kg orl rat BO2 333.6 ug/day BO2 ; Antitumor (Lung) 240 ug/kg diet BO2 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antiulcerogenic JE29:25 ; Anxiolytic WAF ; AP-1-Inhibitor 2-50 uM BO2 ; Apoptotic BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive DAS ; Cardioprotective 200 ug/day; Depressant 52 ; Fungicide DAS ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant 100-200 (-400) ug/man/day SYN-X ; NF-kB-Inhibitor BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Polyamine-Synthesis-Inhibitor BO2 ; Prostaglandin-Sparer JPP42:655 ; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor IC50=2-50 uM BO2 ; VEGF-Inhibitor BO2

 

SERINE Bulb 1,900 - 4,560 ppm DUKE1992A
Cancer-Preventive 525

 

SILICON Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antiarteriosclerotic DAS ; Antionychyotic PIL ; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective PIL

 

SINAPIC-ACID Plant 27 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antibacterial JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antioxidant IC27=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxynitrite IC39=5 uM JAF50:5884 IC60=20 uM JAF50:5884 IC75=100 uM JAF50:5884 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

SODIUM Bulb 158 - 559 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 40 - 294 ppm DUKE1992A
Hypertensive DAS

 

STIGMASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A
Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory LRN1995 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiviral PS75:161 ; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG ; Ovulant DUKE1992B ; Sedative PM6:499.1986

 

SUCCINIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
Additive FEMA 200-2,000 ARC ; Antifeedant CPB38:2862 ; Bruchiphobe 382 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Dye M11 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

SUCROSE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Aggregant PAM ; Antihiccup 1 tsp M29 ; Antiophthalmic M29 ; Antioxidant M11 ; Atherogenic PAM ; Collyrium JBH ; Demulcent JBH ; Flatugenic PFH46:77 ; Hypercholesterolemic PAM ; Preservative M11 ; Sweetener 1 x sucrose M11 ; Triglycerigenic PAM ; Uricogenic PAM ; Vulnerary M29

 

TAURINE Plant: DUKE1992A
Anticorneitic DUKE1992B ; Antihemolytic DUKE1992B ; Antioxidant CPB38:3116 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardiac M29 ; Hypocholesterolemic M29

 

THIAMACORNINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

THIAMAMIDINE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

THIAMIN Bulb 2 - 8 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 1.1 - 9.5 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 1.1 - 8.1 ppm DUKE1992A Shoot 1.4 - 6.3 ppm DUKE1992A
Analgesic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antialcoholic 50-100 mg/day; Antialzheimeran 100-3,000 mg/day WER ; Antianorectic JBH ; Antibackache 1-4 g/day WER ; Antiberiberi DUKE1992B ; Anticanker MPP ; Anticardiospasmic DUKE1992B ; Anticataract PIL ; Anticolitic DUKE1992B ; Antidecubitic DUKE1992B ; Antideliriant DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidyspeptic PIL ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antifatigue JBH ; Antigastritic JBH ; Antihangover 50 mg WAF ; Antiheartburn DUKE1992B ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; AntiLyme; Antimigraine DUKE1992B ; Antimyocarditic DUKE1992B ; Antineuralgic 1-4 g/day WER ; Antineurasthenic DUKE1992B ; Antineuritic DUKE1992B ; Antineuropathic 50 mg WER ; Antipoliomyelitic DUKE1992B ; Insectifuge 75-150 mg/man/day MAR ; Neuroprotective PIL ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

 

THREONINE Bulb 1,570 - 3,768 ppm DUKE1992A
Antioxidant? PC27:976 ; Antiulcer M29 ; Essential JBH ; FLavor FEMA 1,000 ARC

 

TIN Bulb 6 ppm; DUKE1992A
Antiacne DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Taenicide MAR

 

TRANS-1-PROPENYL-METHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb 0.9 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

TRANS-AJOENE Bulb 268 ppm; DUKE1992A
Calcium-Antagonist IC50=100 uM gpg K29404

 

TRANS-S-(PROPENYL-1-YL)-CYSTEINE-DISULFIDE Bulb: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

TRYPTOPHAN Bulb 660 - 1,584 ppm DUKE1992A
Analgesic 750 mg/4x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antianxiety 500-1,000 mg/meal WER ; Antidementia 3 g/day WER ; Antidepressant 1-3 g/3x/day/orl/man M29 ; Antidyskinetic 2-8 g/orl/wmn/day M29 ; Antihypertensive JAF36:1079 ; Antiinsomniac 1-3 g/day WER ; Antimanic 12 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antimenopausal 6 g/day WER ; Antimigraine 500 mg/man/4x/day M29 ; Antioxidant 125 ug/ml; Antiparkinsonian 2 g 3 x/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiprostaglandin 250 pg/ml X12120812 ; Antipsychotic 12 g/man/day M29 ; Antirheumatic M29 ; Antiscoliotic ACS791:267 ; Carcinogenic CRC ; Essential JBH ; Hypnotic M29 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:157 ; Hypotensive 3 g/day WER ; Insulinase-Inhibitor EMP6:157 ; Insulinotonic JAF36:1079 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM ; Prolactinogenic PAM ; Sedative 3-10 g/man/day; Serotoninergic 6-12 g/day/orl/man MAR ; Tumor-Promoter JAF36:1079

 

TYROSINASE Bulb: DUKE1992A
Antihypertensive M11

 

TYROSINE Bulb 810 - 1,944 ppm DUKE1992A
Antidepressant?; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiparkinsonian 100 mg/kg/day WER ; Antiphenylketonuric M29 ; Antiulcer 256 mg scu BBE 400 mg/kg ipr rat BBE ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Monoamine-Precursor PAM

 

URANIUM Bulb: DUKE1992A
Nephrotoxic PAM

 

VALINE Bulb 2,910 - 6,984 ppm DUKE1992A
Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Essential DUKE1992B ; FLavor FEMA 1,000-2,000 ARC

 

VIT-U Plant: DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

WATER Bulb 585,000 - 678,000 ppm DUKE1992A Flower 884,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Leaf 864,000 ppm; DUKE1992A Shoot 777,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

 

ZINC Bulb 15.3 ppm; DUKE1992A
ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

 

 

 
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