"Since thimerosal was repeatedly shown to be genotoxic [damaging to DNA] in vitro and in vivo [inside the living organism], there is reason for concern about its widespread use." (2003 - Archives of Toxicology)
"Since the acquisition of motor reflexes is controlled by the brainstem, it is possible that very early exposure to ethyl mercury may adversely affect the emerging brainstem function ... this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques [type of monkey] receiving a single dose of Th-containing [Thimerosal containing] HB [Hepatitis B] vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited." (2009 - NeuroToxicology)
2003 - Archives of toxicology
"In conclusion, thimerosal induced strong effects in the cytochalasin B in vitro [outside the living organism] micronucleus test in human lymphocytes ... Since thimerosal was repeatedly shown to be genotoxic [damaging to DNA] in vitro and in vivo [inside the living organism], there is reason for concern about its widespread use."
2005 - NeuroToxicology
"In both cell lines, a progressive increase in cytotoxicity [decrease in viability] was observed when Thimerosal dose was progressively doubled from 2.5 μmol/L [micromoles per liter] to 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L. Viability was reduced more than 50% in both cell lines with exposure to 10 μmol/L Thimerosal and less than 10% of cells survived a dose of 20 μmol/L. Thimerosal induces oxidative stress and apoptosis [programmed cell death] by activating mitochondrial cell death pathways. A subsequent study using cultured human neuron and fibroblast cell lines similarly showed that low micromolar concentrations of Thimerosal induced DNA strand breaks, caspase-3 activation, membrane damage and cell death."
Summary of Science on Thimerosal Effects at Vaccine-Relevant Doses
Submission to the Colorado Senate
Heath & Human Services Committee
for its deliberation of SB 06-099
February 22, 2006
Baskin (2003) – thimerosal disrupts cell membranes, damages DNA, and alters cell
shape at concentrations only 4 times those expected from vaccines. Greater effects
were seen as the length of time of exposure grew, suggesting that under real
conditions the concentration needed for the observed alterations would be much
lower. This has been shown in subsequent research, that exposure of cells to
nanomolar levels of thimerosal after 24 hours results in cell alterations.