Just wanted to add 2 cents to this....okay, maybe 80 cents worth due to inflation, but I digress. In my opinion, whether or not you noticed, you sort of answered your own question to begin with.
"Suffering comes to us for two reasons - either as a consequence of our own actions or ......"
Since you included Biblical references, I thought I'd give one too.
"suffer the little children to come unto me".
Undoubtedly this Biblical meaning is not the same as the meaning most of us have been trained to think of when we hear, see or use this word. I first remember hearing this verse read during Sunday school around the age of 6, and boy did it confuse me for many years unended.
" disease the little children to come unto me...... hurt the little children to come unto me.... . misery, anguish & painful death the little chidlren to come unto me....". As a youngster, none of these made sense but these were the things I had been taught to know for the word "suffer".Its taken the better part of the last 40 years peeling away enough layers of the constant brainwashing we are all born into to resolve this confusion. "allow the little children to come unto me".
The flip side works too. Do people allow disease, misery, pain & anguish, even to the point of death?. Sure they do, especially when it is visited upon other people....like way down South in Nicaragua or Peru or Waco, or perhaps way East in Viet Nam or Serbia or Afghanistan, but many people unwittingly allow these to happen to themselves as well. Do we do it knowingly? Sometimes yes, sometimes no, it really varies. According to the written word of the God of Israel, the consequences of what one generation allowed were liable to be visited upon their successive generations. For successive generations, this might kinda sucks, huh? At the current rate, it looks as though there may not be a whole bunch of future generations of Americans..... it's a little murky and hard to tell for sure at the moment. For one reason, most of the original Native Americans have already been eradicated and the few of them still alive have been banished to exist on dry, rocky outposts "reservations", but with all the booze, gambling, tobacco, beads & trinkets they want! For another reason, we the second gen (thats US) are kinda headed to a similar fate. For those who, say, 50 years from now, are still alive here whether they speaka da English, Chinglish or Span, they are liable to be visited upon by the consequences of perpetual debt the previous gens were unable / unwilling to pay, which is to say, they will be visited upon by state-sponsored international monetary debt that is attached to all kinds of other debt like so many bed partners in crime; an existence defined by the welfare state glommed onto big-pharma & big-agri, OBE-educated to boot.
When the God of Israel was delivering the land of Canaan into the hands of the 9.5 tribes, city by city, valley by valley, milk & honey by milk & honey, do you suppose there were at least a few innocent young children, who, upon invasion, experienced painful, agonizing, miserable death, and their only sin was having been born to wicked parents who had allowed themselves to follow an idolatrous life against the design of a Creator they did not heed?