"In conclusion, chromium supplementation seems to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients, which appears to be due to an increase in insulin action rather than stimulation of insulin secretion."
"Chromium is an essential dietary trace mineral involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is required for cellular uptake of glucose, and chromium deficiency causes insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and has been used as adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus in humans."
"Chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Its main action is thought to be the regulation of blood sugar, because chromium deficiency is associated with diabetic-like symptoms, and chromium supplementation is correlated with increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity."
"These data demonstrate that supplemental chromium had significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol variables in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial effects of chromium in individuals with diabetes were observed at levels higher than the upper limit of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake."
"Chromium is an essential nutrient required for Sugar and fat metabolism. Normal dietary intake of Cr for humans is suboptimal. The estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake for Cr is 50 to 200 microg. However, most diets contain less than 60% of the minimum suggested intake of 50 microg. Insufficient dietary intake of Cr leads to signs and symptoms that are similar to those observed for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Supplemental Cr given to people with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes leads to improved blood glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Chromium has also been shown to improve lean body mass in humans and swine. Response to Cr is dependent upon form and amount of supplemental Cr. Chromium is a nutrient; therefore, it will only be of benefit to those who are marginally or overtly Cr deficient. Trivalent Cr has a very large safety range and there have been no documented signs of Cr toxicity in any of the nutritional studies at levels up to 1 mg per day. "
"The influences that age-related decreases in chromium levels might have on increasing the risk to develop age-related impaired glucose metabolism, disordered lipid metabolism, coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and type II diabetes mellitus are outlined, and the role that refined carbohydrates play in the development of compromised chromium status is presented."
"CONCLUSIONS--Ours is the first report of a significant reduction in serum TGs in a group of NIDDM patients treated with chromium. The low cost and excellent safety profile of chromium make it an attractive lipid-lowering agent for this population.
"Chromium holds a frequent and important place in toxicological literature. The large number of more or less important toxicological facts (e.g. allergic dermatoses, ulcer, perforations of the nasal septum, bronchitis, cancerogenity etc.) are the reason why chromium is conceived rather as a toxic element. On the other hand in the non-toxicological literature favourable actions of chromium are described (its relationship to carbohydrate utilization, the glucose tolerance factor, diabetes etc.) which may induce us to consider chromium an essential element. Is chromium toxic or essential? It is both. The concept of essential or toxic cannot be conceived statically, these terms are relative and depend on a number of other facts and data (dose, time, chemical form, individuality of the organism, interaction with other substances in the environment etc). This relative view has a more general validity not only for chromium but for trace elements in general and it is very important in particular with regard to prevention of health damage caused by deficiency or excess of a substance."