"1. Culture of putatively infected tissue.From A critical appraisal of the evidence for the isolation of HIV (Unpublished) by Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, Valendar F.Turner, John M. Papadimitriou, and David Causer.
2. Purification of particles by density gradient ultracentrifugation.
3. Electron micrographic examination of the 1.16 gm/ml sucrose density gradient revealing nothing else but particles exhibiting the morphological characteristics and dimensions of retroviral particles.
4. Proof that such particles contain reverse transcriptase.
5. Analysis of the particles' proteins and RNA and proof that these are specific for those particles.
6. Proof that the particles are infectious, that is, when pure particles are introduced into cultures or animals, identical particles are obtained as shown by repeating steps 1-5.
7. Proof that the particles are a property of putatively infected tissues and cannot be induced in control cultures, that is, tissues obtained from matched subjects and cultured under identical conditions differing only in that they are not putatively infected with the retrovirus."
"When Montagnier and Gallo detected reverse transcription activity in their cultures, they concluded that these T cells from AIDS patients were indeed infected with a retrovirus. Unfortunately, reverse transcription activity of normal cells also tends to be promoted by the very cellular conditions to which Gallo and Montagnier subjected their patients’ T cells. Therefore, detection of reverse transcription activity in the T cell cultures of AIDS patients was not proof at all that there was a retrovirus in those cultures.Gallo's other invented virus: HL23V
"The second piece of evidence that Gallo and Montagnier offered in support of the notion that there was a retrovirus in the T cell cultures in their patients with AIDS was that they detected retroviral-like particles in these cell cultures. The important thing to remember is they didn’t identify retroviral-like particles in isolates, i.e. pure HIV, from these cultures. They simply pointed to particles in impure cell cultures and asserted that not only were they retroviruses, but they were a specific retrovirus, HIV.
"Now that really defies all scientific good sense because as even Gallo admits, retroviral-like particles that are actually cellular in origin are, in fact, ubiquitous in cultures, especially when cultures are subjected to the conditions that Gallo and Montagnier used in order to cultivate HIV. Therefore, the identification of these particles in impure cell cultures was not by any means proof positive that those particles were a retrovirus, much less a specific retrovirus, HIV.
"The third piece of evidence that Gallo and Montagnier offered in support of the notion that these T cells cultures from AIDS patients actually harbored a retrovirus was that they identified certain proteins in these cultures as HIV proteins. These HIV proteins were then incorporated into the antibody and West Blot and used to test for HIV antibodies. Unfortunately, Gallo and Montagnier identified proteins in their cultures as HIV proteins simply because these proteins reacted with antibodies from AIDS patients, and not from non-AIDS patients. Unfortunately, because AIDS patients had a high level of circulating antibodies, much higher than in normal, healthy individuals, that meant that AIDS patients were likely to have antibody cross reactions with any particular given protein more frequently than non-AIDS patients. Therefore, the identification of certain proteins as HIV proteins, simply because they reacted with antibodies of AIDS patients and not non-AIDS patients was insufficient proof that these proteins were actually HIV proteins.
"Those three pieces of evidence--reverse transcription activity, the identification of retroviral-like particles in impure cell cultures, and the identification of HIV proteins simply on the basis of antibody reactions--were the only pieces of evidence Gallo and Montagnier had in support of their claims to have isolated a retrovirus from their patients’ cultures."
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