Pesticide and fungicide use
Organochlorine pesticides are conventionally used in commercial wolfberry cultivation to mitigate destruction of the delicate berries by insects. Since the early 21st century, high levels of pyrethroid insecticide residues (including fenvalerate and cypermethrin) and fungicide residues (such as triadimenol), have been detected by the United States Food and Drug Administration in some imported wolfberries and wolfberry products of Chinese origin, leading to the seizure of these products. Due to the demand for organic products in the West, some Chinese growers are beginning to experiment with integrated pest management and to explore the possibility of obtaining organic certification, something that has not yet been publicly disclosed for Chinese wolfberry farms and products.
Some Western resellers may state that their wolfberries are organically grown when in fact they are not. The Green Certificate claimed by some wolfberry marketers to be the equivalent of the United States Department of Agriculture's "USDA Organic" seal is in actuality simply an agricultural training program for China's rural poor. China's Green Food Standard, administered by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture's China Green Food Development Center, does permit some amount of pesticide and herbicide use.
Despite some claims that wolfberries sold in Europe, the United States, and Canada meet organic standards, there is no public evidence for standardized organic certification of wolfberries from the Asian regions where they are commercially grown. Often, these berries are marketed as Tibetan or Himalayan Goji Berries that have been "wild crafted" or "wild harvested". On the contrary, however, Tibet's agriculture conventionally uses fertilizers and pesticides, and neither wolfberries ("goji") of Tibetan or Himalayan origin sold outside Tibet nor organic certification of such berries have been proved.
Chemical make up of goji:
Wolfberry contains significant percentages of a day's macronutrient needs – carbohydrates, protein, fat and dietary fiber. 68% of the mass of dried wolfberries exists as carbohydrate, 12% as protein, and 10% each as fiber and fat, giving a total caloric value in a 100 gram serving of 370 (kilo)calories, of which 272 come from carbohydrates, and 90 of which come from fat.
 Micronutrients and phytochemicals
Wolfberries contain many nutrients and phytochemicals including
· 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals
· 18 amino acids
· 6 essential vitamins
· 8 polysaccharides and 6 monosaccharides
· 5 unsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
· beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols
· 5 carotenoids, including beta-carotene and zeaxanthin (below), lutein, lycopene and cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll
· numerous phenolic pigments (phenols) associated with antioxidant properties
Select examples given below are for 100 grams of dried berries. Other nutrient data are presented in two reference texts
· Calcium. Wolfberries contain 112 mg per 100 gram serving, providing about 8-10% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).
· Potassium. Wolfberries contain 1,132 mg per 100 grams dried fruit, giving about 24% of the DRI.
· Iron. Wolfberries have 9 mg iron per 100 grams (100% DRI).
· Zinc. 2 mg per 100 grams dried fruit (18% DRI).
· Selenium. 100 grams of dried wolfberries contain 50 micrograms (91% DRI)
· Riboflavin (vitamin B2). At 1.3 mg, 100 grams of dried wolfberries provide 100% of DRI.
· Vitamin C. Vitamin C content in dried wolfberries has a wide range (from different sources) from 29 mg per 100 grams to as high as 148 mg per 100 grams (respectively, 32% and 163% DRI).
Wolfberries also contain numerous phytochemicals for which there are no established DRI values. Examples:
· Beta-carotene: 7 mg per 100 grams dried fruit.
· Zeaxanthin. Reported values for zeaxanthin content in dried wolfberries vary considerably, from 25 mg per 100 grams  to 200 mg per 100 grams . The higher values would make wolfberry one of the richest edible plant sources known for zeaxanthin content. Up to 77% of total carotenoids present in wolfberry exist as zeaxanthin.
· Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are a major constituent of wolfberries, representing up to 31% of pulp weight.
Analyzed as a whole fruit powder, noni fruit has excellent levels of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, providing 55% and 100% of the Dietary Reference Intakes, respectively, in a 100 g serving. A good source of protein (12% DRI), noni pulp is low in total fats (4% DRI).
These macronutrients evidently reside in the fruit pulp, as noni juice has sparse amounts of macronutrients.
The main micronutrient features of noni pulp powder include exceptional vitamin C content (10x DRI) and substantial amounts of niacin (vitamin B3), iron and potassium. Vitamin A, calcium and sodium are present in moderate amounts.
When noni juice alone is analyzed and compared to pulp powder, only vitamin C is retained at a high level, 42% of DRI.
Nutrient analyses for a major brand of noni juice (Tahitian Noni Juice™, TNJ) were published in 2002 by the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection (ECHCP)  during a test for public safety of TNJ. TNJ ingredients include noni purée and juice concentrates from grapes and blueberries.
For antimicrobial purposes, TNJ must be subjected to the high temperatures of pasteurization which essentially nullifies most of the nutrient contents of the natural purée.
As shown by the ECHCP analyses, excepting vitamin C content at 31% of DRI, TNJ bears no significant nutrition. Its macronutrient content provides just 8% of the DRI for carbohydrates, only traces of other macronutrients and low or trace levels of 10 essential vitamins, 7 essential dietary minerals and 18 amino acids.
Although the most significant nutrient feature of noni pulp powder or juice is its high vitamin C content, this level in TNJ provides only about half the vitamin C of a raw navel orange. Sodium levels in TNJ (about 3% of DRI) are multiples of those in an orange. Although the potassium content appears relatively high for noni, this total is only about 3% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and so would not be considered excessive. TNJ is otherwise similar in micronutrient content to a raw orange.
The history of published medical research on noni phytochemicals numbers only around a total of 120 reports which began appearing in the 1950s. Just since 2000, about 105 publications on noni have been published in medical literature, defining a relatively young research field (August, 2007). Nearly all noni research is at a preliminary stage, still in the laboratory as in vitro or basic animal experiments.
Noni fruit contains phytochemicals for which there are no established DRI values. Examples:
· oligo- and polysaccharides – long-chain Sugar molecules that serve a prebiotic function as dietary fiber fermentable by colonic bacteria, yielding short chain fatty acids with numerous potential health properties not yet defined by scientific research on noni
· glycosides – sugar-phenolic compounds including flavonoids such as rutin and asperulosidic acid, are common in several Rubiaceae plants; specifically named noni isolates called iridoides and morindoides have been reported, but are not well characterized to date
· trisaccharide fatty-acid esters, "noniosides" - resulting from combination of an alcohol and an acid in noni fruit, noniosides are chemicals giving noni its noxious smell and taste
· scopoletin – may have Antibiotic activities; research is preliminary
· beta-sitosterol – a plant sterol with potential for anti-cholesterol activity not yet proven in human research
· damnacanthal – an anthraquinone having potential as an inhibitor of HIV viral proteins
· alkaloids – naturally occurring amines from plants, often attributed to causing bitter tastes and so may contribute to the foul taste of noni. Some internet references mention xeronine or proxeronine as important noni constituents. However, as no reports on either of these substances exist in published medical literature, the terms are scientifically unrecognized.
Although there is evidence from in vitro studies and laboratory models for bioactivity of each of the above phytochemicals, the research remains at best preliminary and too early to conclude anything about human health benefits provided by noni or its juice. Furthermore, nearly all these compounds exist in many plant foods, so are not unique to noni.