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Mineral Absorption and Deficiency
 
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Mineral Absorption and Deficiency


Mineral Absorption and Deficiency

Mineral supplements are associated with different absorptive capacities. The absorption of minerals depends on a number of physiological, biochemical, and hormonal characteristics of the consumer and the form of the mineral consumed. Potential mineral sources are not all alike and should be evaluated for bioavailability.[iv][4]

Factors that enhance mineral absorption include the form of the mineral ingested, maintenance of chemical stability, presence of a specific transporter, small particle size, solubility, ascorbic acid, and low intestinal motility. Factors that inhibit absorption include oxalic acid, phytic acid, [v][5] fiber[vi][6], sodium, tannins[vii][7], caffeine, protein, fat, antacids, rapid transit time, malabsorption syndromes, precipitation by alkalinization, other minerals[viii][8], hormones and nutritional status.[ix][9]

Factors Affecting Absorption

Current knowledge on intestinal absorption of nutrients includes multiple factors that can affect absorption. Physiochemical processes that influence both the extent and the rate at which minerals cross the mucosal barrier and enter the bloodstream influence absorption. The following table lists factors that specifically enhance absorption of an orally administered nutrient:

Factors That Enhance the Extent and Rate of Absorption of an Orally Administered Nutrient[xiii][13]

Lack of complex formation with diet ingredients

Maintenance of chemical stability at stomach/small intestine pH

Presence of a specific transporter

Small size for transportation with bulk water flow

Lipid solubility-nonionized at local pH

High circulation to the site of absorption, to maintain concentration gradient

Appropriate stomach-emptying rate

Low small intestinal

Conclusion

While the ultimate absorption of minerals by the human body is dependent upon numerous factors including homeostasis, body stores, and hormonal regulation, the absorbability of minerals (their availability for absorption) is also affected by the form in which the minerals are ingested. Minerals in solid forms such as in solid dosage supplements and in foods must be dissolved and disintegrated prior to being available for absorption. Principles of biochemistry show that minerals in a liquid medium, or in soluble acids, i.e. colloidal minerals, can be expected to be more absorbable due to their smaller size, larger surface area and relative charge. The solubility of a mineral has been shown to enhance its bioavailability. Thus, there is scientific evidence that colloidal minerals may be more efficient, a preferred vehicle for absorption, than minerals in solid forms.


http://www.americanlongevity.net/misc/mineral_absorption.php

 

 
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