Hi Catlin, simply soft metals Clo2 loves to eat, copper, brass, stainless steel etc. I have just had a situation after warning customer about changing from Ozone to ClO2 that stainless pipes will be a problem, it took 3 weeks for pitting and 6 weeks for pinholeing and all had to be replaced, $60,000.00 worth. But Ozone could not handle the BOD of the process waters when recycled.
ClO2 as a bullet, not the gun!
Chlorine Dioxide is an oxidizing biocide, not a metabolic poison. It deactivates micro organisms by attacking and penetrating their cell wall, disrupting the transport of nutrients across the cell wall and inhibiting protein synthesis. Since this action occurs regardless of the metabolic state of the organism, oxidizing biocides are effective against dormant organisms and spores (Giardia Cysts and Poliovirus). To use an analogy, a spiked drink cannot kill a sleeping man. He has to wake up and drink it before it has any effect. A sleeping man is however easily killed by a .357 calibre in the head. Chlorine Dioxide is a Bullet.
Question?????? Can organisms build up a resistance to Chlorine Dioxide?
No. Metabolic poisons such as anti-biotics can lead to organism resistance. With continued, subacute exposure, resistance is common. Chlorine Dioxide is however not a metabolic poison and resistance is not possible. If you drink for many years and don't die of liver cancer, you are likely to be able to consume alcohol in volumes, which would kill anyone else. You are to some degree resistant, however, being run over by a bus will still kill you! Chlorine Dioxide is a bus to micro organisms.
The following is documented proof against everything Humble states that a pH7 and ClO2 is ineffective and good bacteria survive!
The results of studies on E. coli inactivation are inconclusive. It has been found that the degree of inactivation by chlorine dioxide increases as pH increases (Bernarde et al., 1967a). However, an earlier study found that the bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide was not affected by pH values in
the range of 6.0 to 10.0 (Ridenour and Ingols, 1947). A recent study on Cryptosporidium found that inactivation of oocysts using chlorine dioxide occurred more rapidly at a pH of 8.0 than 6.0. At a similar CT value, the level of inactivation at pH of 8.0 was approximately twice that at a pH of 6.0 (Le Chevallier et al., 1997). Chlorine dioxide is moderately corrosive by nature. Higher concentrations and lower solution pH will increase the corrosiveness of the applied product. Chlorine dioxide is especially corrosive to soft metals such as brass, copper, and aluminum.
During the oxidation of organic material, the chlorine dioxide breaks down to a chlorite ion. Chlorite and the chlorates are precisely the most important DBPs produced by the use of this disinfectant. The WHO has not yet established a guideline value for chlorine dioxide because of its rapid breakdown into chlorite, chlorate and chloride and because the provisional WHO guideline value for chlorite of 200 mg/liter offers adequate protection against the potential toxicity of chlorine dioxide.
It stands to reason that chlorine dioxide would be just as effective working in the waters of the human body.
Chlorine dioxide’s extreme volatility prevents pathogens from developing a resistance. Mainly because when they “clash,” the pathogens no longer exist. Yet, healthy cells and beneficial bacteria are unaffected.
While normal levels of oxygen in the blood cannot destroy all of the pathogens present under disease conditions, delivery of chlorine dioxide changes everything.
“Halt! Surrender Your Electrons, Now!”
When a chlorine dioxide ion contacts a harmful pathogen, it instantly rips up to five electrons from the pathogen, in what can be likened to a microscopic explosion… harmless to us, but terminal for pathogens.
The pathogen – an electron donor – is rendered harmless due to the involuntary surrendering of its electrons to the chlorine dioxide – an electron acceptor – and the resulting release of energy. Oxidized by the chlorine ion, the former pathogen becomes a harmless salt.
This process benefits a body that has become toxic.
Throughout the body, anywhere chlorine dioxide ions – transported via red blood cells – come in contact with pathogens, the pathogens give up their electrons and cease to exist. The chlorine dioxide armed cells only “detonate” on contact with pathogens, which include harmful bacteria, viruses, toxins, heavy metals, and parasites. All of these will have pH values that are out of the body’s range of good health. They will also have a positive ionic charge. The chlorine dioxide equipped cells do not oxidize beneficial bacteria, or healthy cells, as their pH levels are 7 or above, and hold a negative ion charge.
Chlorine dioxide ions will oxidize – meaning vaporize – diseased cells… anything that is acidic, with a positive ion charge.
If the chlorine dioxide ions encounter no pathogens or other poisons, it deteriorates into table salt
and in some instances, hypochlorous acid, which the body can also use.
FROM ABRAHAM AND HUMBLE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Research has proven chlorine dioxide to be much safer than chlorine, as it is selective for pathogens when used in water. Furthermore, it does not create harmful compounds from other constituents in the water as chlorine does.
Numerous scientific studies have demonstrated that chlorine – part of the halogen family of elements – creates as least three carcinogenic compounds when it enters the body, principally trihalomethanes (THMs). There has been no such evidence of harmful compounds being produced from chlorine dioxide.
This is why, in 1999, the American Society of Analytical Chemists proclaimed chlorine dioxide to be the most powerful pathogen killer known to man.