Vulcanel's a peach!
And, your zits are bromin-acne. Have a look at our FAQ's on that...
I'm off to find you some links.
Are you salt-loading, Tony? Because chloride displaces bromide in extracellular tissue...and pushes it out through the skin, hence, bromide zits.
Popular natural health thinking is that the skin is an "alternative" route of elimination, that the body will expel through the skin only when the other eliminative channels are taxed. Not true with bromide, IMO(and in many posters experiences).
Here is a very dry explanation:
Metabolism of Bromide and Its Interference with the Metabolism of Iodine
VERY dry info here..some really interesting points to take home though...this info is from studies on rats(those poor critters)
~bromide toxicity is dependent on iodine supply. In other words, if you're iodine-sufficient, that Mountain Dew or exposure to PCBE's will NOT hurt you as much as if you are(like most people), iodine-DEFICIENT. But we knew that anyway, huh? Well, here it is, in hard science... :)
~still, no indication of essentiality of this ubiquitous element...
~poor little baby rats fed brominated mothers milk failed to thrive, about half died.
~largest reservoir of bromide in the rat's SKIN....hmmm...bromide zits, anyone? Hey, does anyone remember this post(I mean, did anyone read it:)? My conjecture then was that salt pushing was messing with the potassium/chloride balance...
~bromide displaces chloride in the EXTRAcellular tissue. Makes total sense as chloride is present in extracellular fluid, potassium within. I've had a vision, though, of fat cells plumped up with bromide, with all of our talk of "brominated fat...
What's my point? I dunno, just trying to figure it out... :)
Anyway, some points from the study, follow the link for complete text:
"...There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function of this ion. After oral ingestion, bromide is rapidly and completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and, analogously to chloride, distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular fluid (with the exception of erythrocytes)... Mason (1936) had already recognized that bromide replaces part of the extracellular chloride, the molar sum of chloride and bromide remaining constant at about 110 mmol/l. The similarity of bromide to chloride entails an important pharmacokinetic interaction; both ions compete for tubular reabsorption (Rauws 1983). The biological half-life of bromide can be decreased by administering surplus chloride ions (Langley Czerwinski 1958). On the contrary, the already long half-life of bromide, which is about 12 days in humans (Söremark 1960b) and approximately 3 to 8 days in the rat (Rauws and Van Logten 1975, Pavelka et al. 2000a), may be increased considerably by a salt-deficient diet (up to 25 days in the rat on a salt-free diet - Rauws and Van Logten (1975)). Considering the chemical similarity of bromine to iodine, on the other hand, goitrogenic effects of bromide may be assumed. Indeed, an enhanced bromide intake in the rat could markedly reduce iodide accumulation in the thyroid ....
However, this hypothesis was disproved by Taurog and Dorris (1991), who observed that even a 200-fold excess of bromide in comparison with iodide in an in vitro incubation system had no effect on the rate of thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed iodination of thyroglobulin. In addition, they concluded that even large doses of bromide did not interfere with iodide transport into the thyroid. Buchberger et al. (1990) studied the effects of chronic administration of large bromide doses on the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones in iodine-deficient rats. The results of this study indicate that bromide toxicity is dependent upon the state of iodine supply in the organism: the signs of hypothyroidism caused by bromide intake were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency....
....The whole stomach was the only organ in the rat, which had a larger uptake of 82Br than blood. Contrary to some previous findings mentioned in the literature, the concentration of radiobromide in the thyroid was not found to exceed that in the blood. A remarkably high concentration of 82Br was found in the skin that represented, due to its large mass, the most abundant depot of bromide in the body of the rat (Pavelka et al. 2000b)....
...A remarkable complex of presumably related changes in the endocrine system induced by bromide was observed in male rats fed a very high dose of sodium bromide in the diet (19.2 g NaBr per kilogram diet) for 4 or 12 weeks (Van Leeuwen et al. 1983, Loeber et al. 1983). The most striking effects of bromide on the endocrine system were found on the thyroid gland and the gonads. Activation of the thyroid, characterized by an increase in relative weight of the organ and a reduction in follicle size, was observed (Loeber et al. 1983). These phenomena were accompanied by a decrease in serum thyroxine (T4), indicating a typical hypothyroidism induced by bromide (Loeber et al. 1983, Pavelka et al. 2002)....
...In studies on the interference of exogenous bromide with iodine metabolism in the rat tissues we have found that under the conditions of increasing bromide intake the thyroid responded very sensitively to even relatively small increase in bromide intake...
...even a high bromide intake did not displace organically bound iodine so that the [I]/[Br] ratio changed only slightly. These results indicate that with sufficient iodine supply in the organism, a stable [I]/[Br] concentration ratio in the thyroid is rapidly established during the exposure of rats to increased concentrations of bromide, while under iodine deficiency iodine atoms in the thyroid are replaced by bromine atoms....
...Interaction of bromide with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland most probably is the underlying mechanism leading to thyroid dysfunction and consequently to the observed alterations in the pituitary-thyroid axis .In rats fed a semisynthetic purified diet containing a high concentration of bromide (up to 19.2 g NaBr/kg, ensuring an average daily intake of bromide of approximately 210-300 mg), Van Leeuwen et al. (1988) found a decrease in the body weight and marked changes in the morphology of the thyroid, a decrease in serum thyroxin accompanied by an increase in the concentration of TSH, and a decrease in the 125I-iodide uptake by the thyroid. Similar signs of hypothyroidism were also described by Buchberger et al. (1990) in rats fed an iodine-poor diet with various amounts of added bromide (4-16 g NaBr/kg). Under these conditions, besides the above mentioned findings even death of experimental animals was encountered....
...We therefore suggest that high levels of bromide in the organism of experimental animals can influence their iodine metabolism in two parallel ways: by a decrease in iodide accumulation in the thyroid, and by a rise in iodide excretion by kidneys. A high surplus of bromide ions in blood, which is under our experimental conditions several thousand times greater than the concentration of iodide, can competitively inhibit the entrance of iodide into the thyroid, and replace a part of iodide in the gland by bromide. By accelerating the renal excretion of iodide, excessive bromide can also influence the pool of exchangeable iodide in the thyroid, in a similar way as chloride does (Pavelka et al. 1999b)...."
HIGH INTAKE OF BROMIDES TO WEANLINGS THROUGH MOTHER"S MILK:
"Very high intake of bromide in the dams in the course of the lactation period (about 220 mg Br- per dam per day) caused a very significant decrease in the body weight increments in the suckling. Only about one-half of them survived and their general condition was very poor.."
and, what various posters have done for brominacne:
Salicylic Acid and Zits by Molly Bloom
Big Zits and zinc by lilypond10
I tried a new technique for those bromide zits...by LNdolls