Causes & Development
Impaired liver function can result from intrahepatic problems caused by exposure to food additives
,solvents (cleaning materials, formaldehyde, toluene, benzene, etc.),pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic,nickel, and aluminum), and other toxins. Other causes include viralinfections of the liver, some inherited disorders such as Gilbert'ssyndrome, alcohol-induced fatty deposits, the use of anabolic steroids/estrogens/oral contraceptives and hyperthyroidism. Bile flow can be restricted also by extrahepatic means such as gallstones, pregnancy, or other physical causes such as tumors.
The congested or sluggish liver is characterized by a diminished bile flow, a condition known in medical terms as cholestasis, while impaired hepatic detoxification refers to decreased phase I and/or phase II enzymeactivity. Phase I detoxification rates that are in excess of phase II activity will also cause toxicity problems due to excessive accumulation of activated intermediates.
Signs & Symptoms
The presence of chronic fatigue is a frequent symptom. Among the other symptoms, people with a sluggish liver may complain of depression, general malaise, headaches, digestive disturbances, allergies and chemical sensitivities, premenstrual syndrome, and constipation.Not surprisingly, these are the same types of symptoms people exposedt o toxic chemicals often complain of. Many toxic chemicals (especially solvents) and heavy metals have an affinity for nervous tissue, giving rise to a variety of psychological and neurological symptoms such as depression, headaches, mental confusion, mental illness, tingling inextremities, abnormal nerve reflexes, and other signs of impaired nervous system function.
Diagnosis & Tests
Although there are more sensitive tests to determine the functional activity of the liver, such as a serum bileacid assay and various clearance tests, clinical judgment based onmedical history remains the major diagnostic tool for the sluggishliver.
Clearance tests using saliva,urine, and/or blood after chemical challenge by caffeine, aspirin, andacetaminophen can be useful in detecting Phase I and II imbalances.
Chlorine dioxide is an antimicrobial pesticide recognized for itsdisinfectant properties since the early 1900s. Chlorine dioxide killsmicroorganisms by disrupting transport of nutrients across the cellwall.
Chlorine dioxide smells somewhat like chlorinebleach. Chlorine dioxide should not be confused with chlorine gas. Theyare two distinct chemicals that react differently and produceby-products that have little in common.
Registration of pesticides containing chlorine dioxide
In 1967, under the authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),EPA first registered the liquid form of chlorine dioxide for use as adisinfectant and sanitizer on a variety of sites such as animal farms,bottling plants, food processing, handling, and storage plants. Otherindustrial uses of liquid chlorine dioxide include:
bleaching pulp and paper
washing fruit and vegetables
disinfecting flume water
disinfecting meat and poultry
disinfecting food processing equipment
treating medical wastes
treating municipal water In1988, EPA registered chlorine dioxide gas (generated from sodiumchlorite, the active ingredient) as a sterilant for use inmanufacturing and laboratory equipment, environmental surfaces, tools,and clean rooms.
Pesticide products containing either sodium chlorite or stabilized chlorine dioxide are usually mixed with another"reactive" chemical - usually an acid - to produce chlorine dioxide ina liquid or gaseous state. The resulting mixture is applied within aspecific sterilization or disinfection system. The liquid chlorinedioxide is then applied to hard surfaces with a sponge or mop or as acoarse spray. Chlorine dioxide gas is also generated on site and isreleased into a sealed treatment area where it remains for severalhours before being removed. After the treatment is completed, the chlorine dioxide gas is neutralized with sodium bisulfite.