By BERNARD JENSEN D.C., Nutritionist
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The following list of words and terms is often used in describing bowel conditions and management. I have attempted to limit the use of technical vocabulary as much as possible so as to keep this discussion on a level that anyone can follow, regardless of education or training.
1. A holding together of two structures which are normally separate by new tissue produced by inflammation or injury. 2. A fibrous band which holds parts together which are normally separated.
The outlet of the rectum lying in the fold between the nates or buttocks.
A condition caused by poisonous substances produced within the body.
An inflammation of the mucus membranes.
The mixture of partly digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach and small intestine during digestion of a meal.
Secretion from the breast before the onset of true lactation two or three days after delivery. The secretion contains mainly serum and white blood corpuscles. So-called “first milk.”
Difficult defecation; infrequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry fecal material; sluggish action of the bowels.
Frequent passage of watery bowel movements. It is a frequent symptom of gas-trointestinal disturbances and is primarily the result of increased peristalsis.
Inflammation of a diverticulum or of diverticula in the intestinal tract, especially in the colon, causing stagnation of feces in little distended sacs of the colon (diverticula).
A sac or pouch in the walls of a canal or organ.
Introduction of solutions into the rectum and colon. This is done to stimulate bowel activity and to cause emptying of the lower intestine.
Relaxed, flabby, having defective or absent muscular tone.
Gas in the stomach and intestines.
The act of bending or condition of being bent in contrast to extension.
The sacculated pouches of the colon..123
mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectum involving the venous plexuses of that area. There are two kinds: external, those involving veins distal to the anorectal line; internal, those involving veins proximal to the anorectal line.
The protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the walls of the cavity which normally contains it.
Prefix meaning above, excessive or beyond.
Prefix indicating less than, below or under.
Sphincter muscles which serve to close the ileum at the point where the small intestines open into the ascend ing colon. It prevents food material from reentering the small intestines.
Potassium salt of indoxylsulfate, found in sweat and urine, and formed when intestinal bacteria convert tryptophan to indole.
A solid, crystalline substance found in feces. It is the product of bacterial decomposition of tryptophan and is largely responsible for the odor of feces. In intestinal obstruction it is absorbed and eliminated in the urine in the form of indican.
The bacteria present in the intestines. The chemical nature of the contents of the intestines varies considerably with respect to the portion of the tract being considered. At birth no bacteria are present in the intestines but are found there very shortly thereafter. Favor-able bacteria may protect the body from invasion by unfavorable ones, which cannot thrive in an acid condition. Also, certain medicines, particularly antibiotics, may cause drastic alterations in the number and kinds of bacteria present.
The science and practice revealing inflammation, where located and what stage it is manifesting. The iris reveals body constitution, inherent weaknesses, levels of health and the transition that takes place in a person’s body according to the way he lives.
1. Pert. to milk. 2. An intestinal lymphatic that takes up chyme and passes it to the lymph circulation and, by way of, the thoracic duct, to the blood vascular system.
An organism which produces lactic acid by fermenting the sugars in milk. Found in milk, feces of infants fed by bottle, and adults. Also present in carious teeth and the saliva.
The bacillus found in fermented milk. Milk fermented with this organism is known as Bulgarian milk.
A disaccharide which on hydrolysis yields glucose and galactose. Bacteria can convert it into lactic and butyric acids, as in the souring of milk. The milk of mammals contains 4 to 7% lactose.
A food or chemical substance which acts to loosen the bowels (i.e..facilitate passage of bowel contents at time of defecation), and, therefore, to prevent or treat constipation. Laxatives may act by increasing peristalsis by irritating the intestinal mucosa, lubricatingthe intestinal walls, softening the bowel contents by increasing the amount of water in the intestines, and increasing the bulk of the bowel contents.
An alkaline fluid found in the lymphatic vessels and the cisterna chyli. It is usually a clear, transparent, colorless fluid; however, in vessels draining the intestines it may appear milky owing to presence of absorbed fats..124
Lymph cell or white blood corpuscle without cytoplasmic granules. They normally number from 20 to 50% of total white cells.
Resembling mucilage; slimy, sticky.
Mucus or Mucous.
A viscid fluid secreted by mucous membranes and glands, consist-ing of mucin, leukocytes, inorganic salts, waterand epithelial cells.
A progressive wave-like movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, esp. the alimentary canal. It is characteristic of tubes possessing longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle fibers.
An aggregation of solitary nodules or groups of lymph nodules found chiefly in the ileum near its junction with the colon. In typhoid fever, they undergo hyperplasia and often become ulcerated. Also called aggregated or agminated nodules or follicles.
Thick mucus esp. that from the respiratory passages.
A falling or downward displacement of some part of the body, as the colon .
Cellular nuclear material extracted from specific animal tissues containing the essential building blueprint for the construction of that tissue. (Example: adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, etc., substances.)
Pertaining to the opening between the stomach and duodenum.
Lower part of large intestine, about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long, between sigmoid flexure and the anal canal.
An involuntary sudden movement or convulsive muscular contraction.
Resembling or of the nature of spasms or convulsions.
Stagnation of normal flow orfluids, as of the blood, urine, or of the intestional mechanism.
By BERNARD JENSEN D.C., Nutritionist