Parasite Transmission and tips on preventing reinfection
Please see the information below, to try to make sure you don't get sick with these parasites again.
Date: 11/8/2014 3:58:46 AM ( 6 y ) ... viewed 3987 times
TRANSMISSION - Blastocystis hominis
Once a person or animal has been infected with Blastocystis hominis, the parasite lives in the intestine and is passed in faeces. Because the parasite is protected by an outer shell, it can survive outside the body and in the environment for long periods in some cases.
Blastocystis ‘hominis’ can be spread by:
-Accidentally swallowing Blastocystis ‘hominis’ picked up from surfaces (such as bathroom fixtures, changing tables, diaper pails, or toys) contaminated with faeces from an infected person or animal.
-Drinking water or using ice made from contaminated sources (e.g., lakes, streams, shallow [less than 50 feet] or poorly monitored or maintained wells).
-Swallowing recreational water contaminated with Blastocystis ‘hominis’. -Recreational water includes water in swimming pools, water parks, hot tubs or spas, fountains, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, or streams that can be contaminated with faeces or sewage from humans or animals.
-Eating uncooked food contaminated with Blastocystis ‘hominis’.
-Having contact with someone who is ill with Blastocystosis.
-Traveling to countries where Blastocystosis is common and being exposed to the parasite as described in the bullets above.
TIPS ON PREVENTING REINFECTION - Blastocystis hominis
Practice good hygiene.
-Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water.
-After using the toilet and before handling or eating food, especially while having diarrhea.
-After changing a diaper or assisting with toileting, especially if you are caring for diaper-aged children, even if you are wearing gloves.
-After touching something that could be contaminated (such as a trash can, cleaning cloth, drain, or soil).
-After handling animals or their toys, leashes, or feces.
-Assist or visually supervise young children and other people you are caring for with hand washing as needed.
-Protect others by not swimming if you are experiencing diarrhea and for 1 week after your diarrhea stops. This is essential for children in diapers.
-Shower with soap and water before entering recreational water. Wash children thoroughly, especially their bottoms, with soap and water after they use the toilet or their diapers are changed and before they enter the water.
-Keep Blastocystis ‘hominis’ and other germs out of pools, hot tubs, lakes, rivers, the ocean, etc. by taking the following steps
-Take children on frequent bathroom breaks or check their diapers often.
-Change diapers in the bathroom or a diaper-changing area.
-Regularly clean bathroom with strong bleach solution.
Avoid water that might be contaminated.
-Do not drink untreated water from shallow wells, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, and streams.
-Do not drink untreated water or use ice made from untreated water during community-wide outbreaks of disease caused by contaminated drinking water.
-Do not swallow recreational water. For more information on recreational water-related illness, visit CDC’s Health Swimming website.
-Do not drink untreated water or use ice made from untreated drinking water in countries where the water supply might be unsafe.
-If you are unable to avoid using or drinking water that might be contaminated, then you can make the water safer to drink by doing one of the following:
-Heat the water to a rolling boil for at least 1 minute (at altitudes greater than 6,562 feet [>2,000 meters], boil water for 3 minutes).
-Use a filter that has an absolute pore size of 1 micron or smaller, or one that has been NSF rated for “cyst removal.” For information on choosing a water filter, see CDC’s Fact Sheet A Guide to Water Filters.
-If you cannot heat the water to a rolling boil or use a recommended filter, then try chemically treating the water by chlorination or iodination. Using chemicals may be less effective than boiling or filtering because the amount of chemical required to make the water safe is highly dependent on the temperature, pH, and cloudiness of the water.
Avoid food that might be contaminated.
-Use safe, uncontaminated water to wash all food that is to be eaten raw.
-Wash and/or peel all raw vegetables and fruits before eating.
-Avoid eating uncooked foods when traveling in countries with minimal water treatment and sanitation systems.
-Avoid fecal exposure during sexual activity. This is especially important while experienccing diarrhea caused by Blastocystosis.
Use a barrier during oral-anal sex.
-Wash hands immediately after handling a condom used during anal sex or after touching the anus or rectal area.
TRANSMISSION - Dientamoeba fragilis & Pinworm (Vector)
Dientamoeba fragilis is a flagellated protozoan which, unlike other intestinal protozoan parasites, does not have a cyst stage. D fragilis is believed to be transmitted between human hosts inside helminth (worm) eggs or larvae, particularly those of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm). The evidence for this is the frequent association between the two organisms and the presence of bodies inside the helminth eggs, which resemble D fragilis. D fragilis forms have been documented in the lumen of pinworms found in the human appendix. D fragilis does not survive long outside the body.
Pinworms infections are highly contagious. You become infected with pinworms by unintentionally ingesting pinworm eggs, which have been deposited onto a surface by an infected person. The cycle of infection begins with the ingestion of these microscopic eggs.
Once the eggs enter your body, they remain in the intestine until they hatch and mature. As adults, the female pinworms move down the intestine, into the colon, and exit the body through the anus. The female pinworms lay eggs in the folds of skin around the anus. The presence of these eggs often causes itching and irritation.
When a person scratches the affected area, the pinworm eggs are transferred to the fingers. The eggs can survive for several hours on your hands. If the infected person touches bedding, clothing, toilet seats, toys, or other household objects, the eggs are transferred to these surfaces. **Pinworm eggs can survive on these contaminated surfaces for up to three weeks.**
The transfer of pinworm eggs is easier among children, who may put infected toys or other objects directly into their mouths. The eggs can also be transferred from contaminated fingers directly to food or liquids. Once you ingest these items, the eggs will spread to your intestine. While uncommon, it’s also possible for adults to inhale eggs that become airborne when bedding or clothing is shaken.
TIPS ON PREVENTING REINFECTION - Dientamoeba fragilis & Pinworm (Vector)
The best way to prevent pinworm infections and reinfections is to follow recommended hygiene routines and encourage other household members, especially children, to do the same. You can work to prevent pinworm infections with the following practices:
-Wash your hands with warm water and soap after using the toilet. Be especially careful after bowel movements and changing diapers. Do the same before preparing food and eating.
-Keep your fingernails short and clean.
-Discourage children’s habits such as nail biting or scratching that could spread pinworm eggs.
-Shower daily in the morning to remove pinworm eggs that may have been deposited overnight.
-Change your underwear and clothing daily.
-Use hot water in the washing machine, followed by a hot dryer (or hang outside in sunlight), to launder bedding, clothing, and towels that may contain pinworm eggs.
-Keep rooms well lit during the day because the eggs are sensitive to sunlight.
Treat your family regularly with Mebendazole or Albendazole (every 3-4 weeks initially and then every few months once better, and each time wash all sheets, pyjamas, towels and other bedding).
Don't use Combantrim to treat pinworm because it causes the pinworms to spasm and release the contents of their intestines into your intestines, and pinworm can carry D. fragilis. Mebendazole or Albendazole are gentler and starve the pinworm of glucose therefore they are less likely to expel the D. fragilis into your system.
Thank you to the Blastocystis Research Foundation & Healthline for some of this information.
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