What Causes Heart Attacks?
Commentaries on a medical myth that has dearly cost the nation's health plus "Understanding Heart Attacks".
Date: 10/28/2014 1:19:10 AM ( 5 y ) ... viewed 1603 times
December 7, 2017 - The Sugar-Heart Disease Connection - Today's Wellness Tip From the Future...with Dr. Carolyn Dean
A Sugar-Free Half Century -
What would the world be like if we didn't become so addicted to sugar over the past half century? If allopathic medicine, which claims to be scientifically-based, had listened to scientists 50 years ago about the dangers of sugar, we could be living in a totally different world. After all, the FDA's given mandate is to ensure the safety of our nation's food supply. And if sugar is not safe, shouldn't the FDA have warned us about that scientific fact? I've heard people say countless times that when their doctor told them to severely cut back on sugar (or some other addictive substance) they finally listened. So having doctors pass on this relevant information about the dangers of sugar could have saved lives.
Here is an article exposing "How The Sugar Industry Tried To Hide The Health Effects Of Its Product 50 Years Ago." The article begins, "About 50 years ago, the sugar industry stopped funding research that began to show something they wanted to hide: that eating lots of sugar is linked to heart disease. A new study exposes the sugar industry's decades-old effort to stifle that critical research." This study in JAMA proves what was becoming apparent 50 years ago - that a high sugar diet increases your risk of heart disease. As soon as that inconvenient fact became known, all funding for that project was pulled and the results were never published.
The sugar industry never admitted that sugar causes weight gain – they said it was due to lack of exercise. However, there is weight gain caused by sugar, which leads to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, elevated lipids, and eventually heart disease. And, according to this JAMA study, sugar intake can harm the heart even without weight gain.
The study took 15 years and found that trial subjects eating 25% of their daily calories as sugar doubled their risk of dying from heart disease compared with those eating 10% sugar.
In my Death by Modern Medicine book I wrote that on April 23, 2003, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) presented an independent expert report titled "Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases." The WHO report focused special attention on added sugars and determined that a healthy diet should contain no more than 10% added sugar.
In the US 72% of the population is overweight, yet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans only advise that sugar should be used in moderation they don't give a number. Even worse, the Institute of Medicine, part of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, keeps the sugar industry happy by endorsing an excessive 25% of their calories from added sugar. That means if you eat a 2,000 calorie diet, 500 calories are sugar is one quarter of that amount and since there are 4 grams of sugar in every carb, you are eating 150 grams of carbs a day. The amount of carbs that you can eat but still maintain your weight or lose weight are between 20 and 50 grams. The amount of sugars allowed by our health experts ensure weight gain. Even 10% sugars from the diet means a carb intake of 50 grams. Note that a can of soda may contain 10 tsp or 40 grams of sugar; a bottle of energy drink, like Rockstar can have up to 15 tsp or 65 grams of sugar!
The sugar industry and the soft drink industry fought to have the WHO policy removed and the allowable sugar levels raised. In a blatant attempt to derail implementation of the Diet and Nutrition Report, the sugar industry lobbied the U.S. government to withhold its $400 million funding from the UN and WHO if it went ahead with its recommendations.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services instead of supporting the WHO recommendation to help reduce chronic disease, produced a 28-page, line-by-line critique, which was just a blatant pandering to American food companies that produce much of the world's high-calorie, high-profit sodas and snacks, especially the makers of sugars.
However, by 2014 the WHO, keeping to its mandate, began recommending that only 5% of daily calories should come from added sugars. The recommendation was not associated with any fanfare, presumably to fly under the radar of the sugar industry.
You can read another article about "How the Sugar Industry Shifted Blame to Fat." Also read my 33-page Rebuttal to the horrendous charges drummed up against me for speaking out about sugar on Canadian national TV 37 years ago. Anyone who tried to tell the truth about sugar was publically castigated so they wouldn't gain media attention diverting the sugar agenda. With this recent study I could say I've been vindicated but it isn't about me; it's about the millions of people who were allowed to keep eating mountains of sugar in spite of the known dangers.
But let's imagine what the world would be like if medicine had followed the Hippocratic Oath to "first do no harm" and "use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients..."
1.) Educating the public about the dangers of consuming too much sugar would result in far less obesity; less ineffective gastric bypass surgery; and less weight loss drugs with their fatal heart attack side effects (Fen-Phen).
2.) There would be less obesity, less metabolic syndrome, less lipid imbalance, and therefore less heart disease.
3.) Blaming dietary fat as the culprit in heart disease unleashed an unnecessary witch hunt against saturated fats opening the commercial market to trans fats for decades until trans fats were found to be far worse!
4.) Magnesium deficiency is associated with heart disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. Perhaps if medicine was more involved with nutrition, they could have avoided this epidemic. Instead there is NO Nutrition subspecialty in medicine. There is a Bariatrics subspecialty that deals with obesity. Instead of preventing the problem, they allow it to manifest and then use drugs and surgery to treat it.
5.) If medicine and the public were more aware of the dangers of sugar and the industry not covering up the problem, they might not have attacked me and convinced my licensing body that I was a danger to society because I said bad things about sugar! You can read my Rebuttal Here. By keeping me (and other critics) out of mainstream media, the message of natural solutions was greatly hampered. Drug companies became the main advertiser on TV and natural solutions were demonized.
6.) If there were more awareness of nutrition we might have avoided our magnesium deficiency epidemic and the associated 65 diseases that can be the result. Sugar creates a magnesium deficit because the liver needs twenty-eight atoms of magnesium to process one molecule of glucose. Fructose requires fifty-six atoms of magnesium.
7.) Sugar also contributes to the epidemic of yeast overgrowth that we suffer. If we had limited our intake of sugar to the WHO recommendation of 5% of our daily calories, we would not suffer the autoimmune diseases like Hashimoto's or dozens of other inflammatory conditions that plague the Western world.
My instincts and information were perfectly on target almost 50 years ago when I warned people about sugar. Today, I continue to fight against sugar excess. With my Completement Formulas and Yeast Protocol, you can painlessly limit your sugar intake and maintain your good health.
Carolyn Dean MD ND
The Doctor of the Future®
February 26, 2018 - Experts Agree: Sugar Might Be as Addictive as Cocaine -
Written by Anna Schaefer and Kareem Yasin
Medically Reviewed by Peggy Pletcher, MS, RD, LD, CDE on October 10, 2016
It’s legal, socially accepted, and lurking in everything we eat.
We reward children with it, over the holidays or for a job well done in school. And we reward ourselves with it — after a particularly stressful day or to celebrate a birthday or a special success. We add sugar to our coffee, bake it into our favorite treats, and spoon it over our breakfast. We love the sweet stuff. We crave it. But, are we addicted to it?
There’s an increasing body of research that tells us sugar could be as addictive as some street drugs and have similar effects on the brain.
“Addiction is a strong word,” says Alan Greene, M.D., a children’s health and wellness expert and the author of books like “Raising Baby Green” and “Feeding Baby Green.” “In medicine we use ‘addiction’ to describe a tragic situation where someone’s brain chemistry has been altered to compel them to repeat a substance or activity despite harmful consequences. This is very different than the casual use of ‘addiction’ (‘I’m addicted to “Game of Thrones!”’).”
“So, I’m serious when I say that evidence is mounting that too much added sugar could lead to true addiction,” says Greene.
What is an addiction? -
The link between sugar and addictive behavior is tied to the fact that, when we eat sugar, opioids and dopamine are released.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is a key part of the “reward circuit” associated with addictive behavior. When a certain behavior causes an excess release of dopamine, you feel a pleasurable “high” that you are inclined to re-experience, and so repeat the behavior. As you repeat that behavior more and more, your brain adjusts to release less dopamine. The only way to feel the same “high” as before is to repeat the behavior in increasing amounts and frequency. This is known as substance abuse.
“Research shows that sugar can be even more addicting than cocaine,” says Cassie Bjork, R.D., L.D., founder of Healthy Simple Life. “Sugar activates the opiate receptors in our brain and affects the reward center, which leads to compulsive behavior, despite the negative consequences like weight gain, headaches, hormone imbalances, and more.”
Sugar activates the reward center in our brain much the same way that drugs do, and provokes similar cravings and withdrawal symptoms.
Studies in rats have shown that sugar activates the brain’s pleasure centers more than cocaine does.
The main perpetrator is not glucose, but fructose, which some researchers have dubbed “alcohol without the buzz.”
In the United States, intake of added sugar is far beyond recommended limits, and almost half of it is coming from sweetened beverages.
“Studies suggest that every time we eat sweets we are reinforcing those neuropathways, causing the brain to become increasingly hardwired to crave sugar, building up a tolerance like any other drug,” she adds.
Indeed, research on rats from Connecticut College has shown that Oreo cookies activate more neurons in the brain’s pleasure center than cocaine does (and just like humans, the rats would eat the filling first). And a 2008 Princeton study found that, under certain circumstances, not only could rats become dependent on sugar, but this dependency correlated with several aspects of addiction, including craving, binging, and withdrawal.
Researchers in France agree that the casual link between sugar and illegal drugs doesn’t just make for dramatic headlines. Not only is there truth to it, but they determined the rewards experienced by the brain after consuming sugar are even “more rewarding and attractive” than the effects of cocaine.
“Stories in the press about Oreos being more addictive than cocaine may have been overstated,” admits Greene, “but we should not take lightly the power of added sugar to lure us again and again, and to rob us of our health.”
“Medical addiction changes brain chemistry to cause binging, craving, withdrawal symptoms, and sensitization,” says Greene. “Excess added sugar can do this too, through changes in the same pathways as addiction to amphetamines or alcohol. Sugar addiction could be an even harder habit to break, according to recent evidence about how added sugar affects our stress hormones.” Sugar is also much more prevalent, available, and socially acceptable than amphetamines or alcohol, and so harder to avoid.
But whether or not sugar is more addictive than cocaine, researchers and nutritionists are in agreement that yes, sugar has addictive properties, and we need to be getting less of it.
“The drug analogy is always a tough one because, unlike drugs, food is necessary for survival,” says Andy Bellatti, M.S., R.D., strategic director of Dietitians for Professional Integrity. “That said, there is an increasing body of research demonstrating that sugar can stimulate the brain's reward processing center in a manner that mimics what we see with some recreational drugs. In certain individuals with certain predispositions, this could manifest as an addiction to sugary foods.”
What is added sugar? -
The World Health Organization (WHO) has been cautioning people to reduce their intake of “free sugars” to less than 10 percent of daily calories since 1989, saying that doing so can lower your risk for being obese, overweight, or experiencing tooth decay. “Free sugars” include both the sugars naturally found in honey and fruit juice, and sugar added to food and drinks. On food labels, added sugars include words such as glucose, corn syrup, brown sugar, dextrose, maltose, and sucrose, as well as many others.
In 2015, they further suggested reducing free sugar intake to less than 5 percent of calories, about 6 teaspoons. In the United States, added sugars account for 14 percent of the average person’s calorie intake.
Most of this comes from beverages, including energy drinks, alcoholic drinks, soda, fruit drinks, and sweetened coffee and teas, says the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Other common sources are snacks. These don’t just include obvious perpetrators, like brownies, cookies, doughnuts, and ice cream. You can also find large quantities of added sugar in bread, salad dressing, granola bars, and even fat-free yogurt.
In fact, one survey found that high-calorie sweeteners are in over 95 percent of granola bars, cereals, and sugar-sweetened beverages, most often in the form of corn syrup, sorghum, and cane sugar.
The ODPHP 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines suggest cutting consumption of added sugars to less than 10 percent of calories per day. To help consumers, the Food and Drug Administration has developed a new food label that lists added sugars separately, which manufacturers will be required to use beginning in 2018. …
April 2, 2018 -
"Sugar is the first addiction and besides obesity and diabetes, it causes behavioral problems. Those problems are treated with drugs leading to more side effects and stronger drugs. We owe it to our kids and society to take a long sugar holiday!"
Carolyn Dean MD ND - The Doctor of the Future®
Dr. Carolyn referred to this Medscape article:
Children should consume less than 25 g, or the equivalent of 6 tsp, of added sugars a day — far below current intake in the United States, according to the first scientific statement on the subject by the American Heart Association (AHA).
Currently, US children ages 2 to 19 years old consume more than three times that amount — about 80 g of added sugar daily — half from food and half from drinks, say the diet and nutrition experts who analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2009–2012. And because intake amounts in the surveys were self-reported, the numbers likely even underestimate the problem, the authors of the statement say.
Added sugars include table sugar, fructose, and honey used in processing and preparing foods or drinks and sugars added to foods at the table or eaten separately.
Only 8 Oz of Sugary Drinks a Week, Guidelines Say.
November 4, 2018 - Here's Why Sugar Causes An Extreme Imbalance & Does Not A Body Good! -
"... Sugar depletes magnesium, so high sugar intake will ultimately cause magnesium depletion and the associated tachycardia and anxiety. According to Natasha Campbell-McBride, in her book Gut and Psychology Syndrome (2010), twenty-eight atoms of magnesium are required to process one molecule of glucose. If you are trying to break down a molecule of fructose, you need fifty-six atoms of magnesium. That's an extremely unbalanced and unsustainable equation. If you can't visualize an atom, just imagine 28 units of magnesium being required to metabolize one unit of glucose. A high sugar diet can trigger frequent surges of insulin that quickly create low blood sugar, followed by surges of adrenalin to force the blood sugar back up by using glycogen stores in the liver."
October 28, 2014 -
"The conventional view of the cause of heart disease is that the central events occur in the coronary arteries. Dr. Cowan rebuts this theory, laying out the case that heart disease is actually better understood from the perspective of events happening in the myocardium, and describing the precise and well-documented events that do lead to heart attacks."
"What Causes Heart Attacks" - by Dr. Thomas Cowan -
Originally published in the May 2014 issue of "Townsend Letter”
"Part Two" Reprinted in the Fall 2014 issue of Wise Traditions -
I have a lot of appreciation for what Dr. Cowan has presented thus far. Here are a couple of my "Hi-Liter" highlights!:
"... during the past fifty years the pursuit of the coronary artery theory has cost this nation billions of dollars in unnecessary surgical costs, billions in medications that cause as much harm as any possible benefits, and, most seriously, has led many to adopt a lowfat diet."
Certainly the money has passed and continues passing through the various institutions of Western Medicine, big pharma as well as many food corporations! It appears that the proponents of "the coronary artery theory" had a fantastic run on their theory! (If only I was a greedy materialist back in the mid to late 60's, or then some, and had something to invest in certain stocks for big pharma or some of the corporate food giants I probably could be "sitting pretty" now. But at what cost to my psyche? I am grateful that I made no such "investments" in any way, shape or form.)
The "cost" of the coronary artery theory cannot be measured in "dollar signs" alone. My father went "under the knife" a couple times under the banner of this theory and as unnecessary as that was - the worst of it (IMO) was the fu(%!^g rat poison called "coumadin" prescribed by his doctor.
He suffered side effects (through-out the final days of his life), which definitely contributed to an unpleasant existence and although I did not hear him make direct complaints about his side effects they were still all too noticeable to me! I had cautioned him a number of times (against continued use of his coumadin beyond the initial couple-month window (when the supposed risk factor for blood clots was reportedly high enough to warrant the blood thinning) and I was under the impression that he would "wean himself off" that prescription but apparently he changed his mind and continued taking it till he finally "cashed in his chips" last Thanksgiving. I do not say that coumadin caused his death however I would say it most significantly ate away his comfort level to the point where the thought of leaving the body became more appealing then continuing to suffer in it. I could never invest in a company manufacturing this product that does not train doctors to wean virtually every patient off the medication after the "danger" period is over.
Dr. Cowan continues: "... heart disease is a true manifestation of the stresses of modern civilized life on the core of the human being. To overcome the epidemic of heart disease we literally need a new medical paradigm, a new economic system, a new ecological consciousness; in short a new way of life."
"The whole (three-fold) enchilada" in one sentence! Of course I agree about what "we need" and that there is increased stress when heart disease is in an active phase however is stress itself actually the cause?
It is interesting to me that just the other day I had mentioned to a new housemate how Dr. Weston A. Price had very-well documented the existence of true health and wellness throughout the several isolated cultures he had visited (about eight decades ago) and that my own personal search for "perfect health" finally came to a happy ending with both my introduction to Sally Fallon and through joining the Weston A. Price Foundation over fourteen years ago. My housemate responded with a question as to whether or not the nutrient-dense diet would work just as well for the more "modern man" in our modern day environments. I immediately responded affirmatively by saying how I am continually reading testimonials in each issue of the Wise Traditions journal from individuals who live in "modern day environments" and experience tremendous health benefits through adopting the dietary principals identified by Dr. Weston Price and practically applied in Nourishing Traditions! However I did make note of his point regarding the environmental factor as I know it does have some impact to bear in mind.
Now Dr. Cowan underscores the point that our modern day lifestyle (which includes what I call a most subtle, almost undetectable form of economic slavery, a very deceptive and unconscious "voluntary servitude" to government, blind faith in so-called modern medicine plus a few other factors) is one that at the very least stressed the hell out of millions of people! This fact of modern living has its physiological impact on the human nervous system and most particularly on the "autonomic (or unconscious) nervous system (ANS)".
Dr. Cowan says: "The autonomic nervous system is divided into two branches, which in a healthy person are always in a balanced ready state. The sympathetic or 'fight-or-flight' system is centered in our adrenal medulla; it uses the chemical adrenaline as its chemical transmission device and tells our bodies (when) there is danger afoot - time to activate and run. It does so by activating a series of biochemical responses, the centerpiece of which is the glycolytic pathways, which accelerate the breakdown of glucose to be used as quick energy as we make our escape from the bear chasing us.
In contrast, the parasympathetic branch, centered in the adrenal cortex, uses the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as its chemical mediators; this is the 'rest-and-digest' arm of the autonomic nervous system.
The particular nerve of the parasympathetic chain that supplies the heart with nervous activity is called the vagus nerve; it slows and relaxes the heart, whereas the sympathetic branches accelerate and constrict the heart. I believe it can be shown that an imbalance in these two branches is responsible for the vast majority of heart disease."
Dr. Cowan then proceeds to show the correlation between "ischemic heart disease" and a reduced "parasympathetic activity" and contrasted with individuals who have "normal parasympathetic activity" and "never suffer form ischemia. In other words, without a preceding decrease in parasympathetic activity, activation of the sympathetic nervous system does not lead to MI."
At this point I think it would be extremely insightful if "the genesis of ischemia and its measurement through the tool of heart rate variability (HRV)" could be applied to cases where the individual has chosen a path of healing supported by the new medicine AKA German New Medicine.
According to Dr. Cowan (and if I am following his line of thinking accurately) it is the (continuous) high-intensity of a stressful lifestyle that decreases the vital parasympathetic activity sufficiently low to a point that when a shock/crisis comes to the individual she/he is most severely impacted. Dr. Hamer has positively identified this impact as a "shock conflict" which he says automatically launches a "special biological survival program that's both necessary and meaningful to the individual" that conventional doctors automatically diagnose as a "disease" (and then write prescriptions for medication and often a recommendation for surgery). In the case of cancer (or the like) that diagnosis often impacts the patient resulting with an additional "shock conflict" that simultaneously launches a second "biological program" (maybe as an additional cancer) that the doctor misinterprets as a metastasization of the initial cancer!
However, Dr. Hammer identifies the unexpected "shock conflict" as the specific cause rather than stress in general, even high stressed lifestyles.
July 3, 2018 - Continuing with Dr. Tom Cowan - Stents -
"...one-third of the patients who undergo a stent procedure (called PCI) have evidence of damage to their heart as a result of the procedure itself. And these people with damage from the stenting have a dramatically higher incidence of death, heart attacks or needing further stenting in the one to two years following the procedure. When this fact is combined with the final quote —
Initial stent implantation for stable CAD (coronary artery disease) shows no evidence of benefit compared with initial medical therapy for prevention of death, nonfatal MI, (myocardial infarction) unplanned revascularization, or angina —
meaning, there is no expected benefit in any parameter measured from putting a stent in a stable patient (which is probably around 95 percent of the stent procedures), we have to wonder why there are still so many stent procedures preformed in the U.S. and around the world.
When we realize that, for a procedure with no expected benefit, one incurs a dramatically increased risk of provoking a heart attack or even death, isn’t it time to find a new way to look at and treat the epidemic of heart disease? I am certain that strophanthus/ouabain is one of the components of this new way of looking at and treating heart disease. Strophanthus improves the microcirculation, gets rid of the lactic acid build-up that causes pain and dysfunction in the heart, and balances the autonomic nervous system. Strophanthus, as the many case studies I have published show, improves heart function for many people suffering from heart disease.
If you are a practitioner or a patient interested in strophanthus/ouabain for the treatment of heart disease, please contact us at (415) 334-1010 or email@example.com, and join us as we slowly revolutionize the treatment of heart disease in this country. ..."
May 24, 2018 - "The Current Research on Aging Is Firmly Tied Up With Telomeres. ... -
As we baby boomers age, we’re desperately trying to find ways to say younger. Anti-aging research is a multi-billion dollar industry. And besides facelifts and Botox, finding a way to protect our telomeres has become the Holy Grail of longevity research.
It should come as no surprise that magnesium is tightly wrapped up with telomeres. But the real shock is how few researchers are focusing on the miracle of magnesium in keeping telomeres from unraveling. Instead they are looking for drugs or formulating expensive supplements to save the telomeres – ignoring the solution that’s right before their eyes.
Shortened telomeres correspond with many conditions associated with aging including heart disease. Heart disease is often a product of magnesium deficiency. Two brilliant magnesium researchers, Drs. Burton and Bella Altura, who wrote the foreword to this book, have published well over 1,000 scientific articles, most of them on magnesium. In 2014 the Alturas participated in a groundbreaking study on magnesium and the enzyme telomerase.
Please read the paper online in its entirety. In it the Alturas describe 25 years of their research that prefigures this present study. The paper’s discussion section is especially important showing how telomeres are damaged by a host of environmental factors, all of which are treatable and preventable by therapeutic levels of magnesium. The paper is supported with 142 references and it is so brilliant that I’m quite beside myself with excitement and I want to quote every word of it for you. ..."
October 5, 2017 - Today's Wellness Tip From the Future...with Dr. Carolyn Dean -
Tom Petty – One More Bites The Dust
When will it get through to the medical establishment and the public that we are fighting a war against magnesium deficiency? Tom Petty, American rocker should not have died at age 66. His band was called The Heart Breakers and tragically he died of a heart attack.
The FDA won't let me say that a heart attack can be brought on by magnesium deficiency or that magnesium can help a person prevent a heart attack. What I can say is that:
80% of the population is magnesium deficient
The highest amount of magnesium in the body is found in the heart.
The electrical conductivity of the heart that creates the heart beat depends on magnesium.
When magnesium is deficient, calcium build up in the heart muscles causing the heart beat to become irregular.
The heart is one big muscle and can go into spasm if there is too much calcium and not enough magnesium in that muscle.
I'm sure you can figure out the rest. If you have trouble convincing your friends, family and doctor about magnesium deficiency, here are the embedded urls to 10 scientific review articles, eight of which allow you to read the full text. These are the articles you need to print up and forward to people who dismiss your magnesium advocacy.
The 2017 review begins with the following statement: "According to the medical literature, we are currently experiencing two concomitant phenomena: (i) a "neglected epidemic of chronic disease" and (ii) a widespread deficiency of selected nutrients. While the importance of magnesium (Mg) and other required elements for the human organism is often well discussed in educational programs for trainees in physiology, nutrition, and dietetics, the importance of acquiring the tools necessary for credible assessment and practical management of nutrient compromise in clinical care can sometimes be lost in the education process for physicians. Accordingly, recognition and assessment for biochemical deficiencies in day-to-day medical practice are sometimes overlooked. This review is specifically designed for medical practitioners as they revisit the important role of Mg in a clinically relevant way."
Gerry K. Schwalfenberg and Stephen J. Genuis, "The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare," Scientifica, vol. 2017, Article ID 4179326, 14 pages, 2017. Full Text:
Glasdam SM, et al. The Importance of Magnesium in the Human Body: A Systematic Literature Review. Adv Clin Chem. 2016;73:169-93. Abstract:
Grober U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep; 7(9): 8199–8226. Full Text:
Volpe SL. Magnesium and the Athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2015 Jul-Aug;14(4):279-83. Full Text:
de Baaij JHF, et. al. Magnesium in Man: Implications for Health and Disease Physiological Reviews. Jan 1, 2015 Vol. 95 no. 1, 1-46. Full Text:
Shah NC, et al. Short-Term Magnesium Deficiency Downregulates Telomerase, Upregulates Neutral Sphingomyelinase And Induces Oxidative DNA Damage In Cardiovascular Tissues: Relevance To Atherogenesis, Cardiovascular Diseases And Aging. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014; 7(3): 497–514. Full Text
Long S, Romani AM. Role of Cellular Magnesium in Human Diseases. Austin J Nutr Food Sci. 2014;2(10). Full Text:
Volpe SL. Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health. Adv Nutr. 2013 May; 4(3): 378S–383S. http://advances.nutrition.org/content/4/3/378S.long Full Text:
Rosanoff A. The Essential Nutrient Magnesium – Key to Mitochondrial ATP Production and Much More. Jun 8, 2009. ProHealth.com. Full Text
Fox C, et al. Magnesium: Its Proven and Potential Clinical Significance. South Med J. 2001 Dec;94(12):1195-201. Abstract
Unfortunately, the FDA won't let the public know that magnesium deficiency is being misdiagnosed and gags dietary supplement companies that recommend magnesium to treat misdiagnosed magnesium deficiency conditions. In an alternate reality, nutrients would be recognized, acclaimed, and welcomed as crucial in maintaining health and preventing disease. However, a non-medical body, the FDA the "fault dietary supplement advisors" are saying that if I mention that magnesium can overcome a disease, I personally make magnesium a drug and that drug has to undergo multi-million dollar clinical trials – of which the FDA gets their cut.
My guiding ethical and moral stance is that magnesium deficiency has been completely misdiagnosed as many different diseases and mistreated with many drugs making many people very ill. So, when I speak about using magnesium for magnesium deficiency symptoms I'm not taking about disease. And the magnesium I speak about that is the most effective for maintaining the healthy structure and function of the body, I'm talking about my 100% absorbed, non laxative ReMag.
Carolyn Dean MD ND
The Doctor of the Future®
November 20th, 2014 -
According to German New Medicine "The myocardium (heart muscle) relates to the 'conflict of being completely overwhelmed’.”
That is a "shock conflict" as opposed to an "overwhelm" of stress.
In regards to a "new medical paradigm, a new economic system, a new ecological consciousness" - most fortunately we now have a medically verified foundation for a "new medical paradigm" and it is called "German New Medicine". I have blogged about the new medicine a number of times over the last several years here at this blog as well as at "Son of Truth of Self" (at Curezone).
I whole-heartedly agree on the need for a "new economic system". As far as I am concerned there are unlimited potentials for new systems and IMO the most successful/most sensible are going to be local-based systems that eventually can bridge to other local systems. This "bridge" can then allow more people to cross over from depending on the federal reserve system that most of us are contending with now.
Last but not least in this "three-fold" commentary - I am happy to say that a "new ecological consciousness" is alive and growing, albeit in patches (and at the grassroots level) however because the economic component is a "stressor" it further underscores the need for the "new economic system".
Dr. Cowan certainly does a splendid job of rebutting "the conventional view of the cause of heart disease". Bravo! In addition he does a fine job of "describing the ... events that do lead to heart attacks". Highly noteworthy! I think this might be as good as it gets from a strictly medical perspective at this time (with the exception of Dr. Carolyn Dean’s contribution regarding magnesium) . This is the perspective in which events like "heart attacks" are perceived as a malfunction of the body. The perception is so well-ingrained in the collective consciousness that God-only-knows whether a shift to another perspective is really possible to the extent that it can positively influence the collective psyche. (Maybe only the bravest of souls are willing/able to lift the veil of the prevailing paradigm.)
What may appear to be just a "medical issue" is simultaneously both a social and spiritual issue for both the individual as well as the collective. Not only do so many individuals need a better "lifestyle", but all of humanity needs to be freed from the deep mental conditioning with its indoctrinated fears of "disease" (and dozens of other fears) that exists subconsciously and are continuously running throughout institutionalized "medicine" where certain exclusives on limited treatments are preserved (and defended) and that are backed by additional fears of consequences, including punitive actions if the patient isn't following "doctor's orders" for themselves and/or their children! Some of the greatest "science fiction" horror stories are those with a "doctor" whose subconscious mind is fully unveiled and aggressively asserted! The same fears are waiting in the subconscious of the patient who will only see a medical doctor for some symptom they do not as yet understand (let alone realize the true biological meaning of) and who believes that the doctor can tell them what the symptom indicates and what should be done to possibly get rid of the symptom. This is a paradigm that is completely divorced from nature as well as the innate intelligence that resides within every single individual (and every cell of their body) who is born on this earth! This paradigm is the mother of all "disease" as it is now "perceived"! And yet nature and the laws of nature reveal another perspective.
Now for those brave souls who know the importance of a truly open mind when it comes to an earnest search for truth there is good news!
A compete presentation on the cause of heart attacks from the German New Medicine perspective is available at: learninggnm.com in three parts:
Understanding Heart Attacks
Recording Date: February 3, 2011
Running Time: 119 minutes
The Cause of Heart Attacks - Standard Theory
Summary of Five Biological Laws
Heart Development (Organ–Germ Layer Relation)
Coronary Artery related Heart Attack
GNM – Prevention through Knowledge
Myocardial Heart Attacks
High Blood Pressure Theory
Watch it online
Following is my sample representation (not an exact transcription) of the content of "Understanding Heart Attacks" with two external links added. Especially see the "5 Biological Laws"!
Understanding Heart Attacks - part 1 - by Caroline Markolin, Ph.D. http://www.LearningGNM.com
based on the findings of Dr. Hamer.
Heart diseases are the most common medical condition and cause of death in the western world next to cancer. According to a presentation by PBS heart disease now kills half of all Americans.
(The following is from a transcript that I am adding here of three of the doctors interviewed in this program.)
Dr. William Castelli: Half of us die from this disease. 80% of us die with it.
Dr. Peter Libby: We've gotten so good at keeping people from dying during the acute phase of a heart attack, many in the public perceive cardiovascular disease as a done deal, as a problem solved. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Dr. Steve Nissen: We have to find what's driving that disease, and to try to attack it at its root causes.
Dr. Peter Libby: Our ideas of how heart attacks come about have evolved enormously in the last decade, but we haven't really completely unraveled the mystery of cardiovascular risk.
“The mystery of cardiovascular risk” reveals that the standard theories as to the cause of heart disease/heart attacks are only based on assumptions instead of really “good science”. Although they are presented as officially established theories the factors that have been attributed as causative were not scientifically verified and reproducible in every patient’s case.
Medical research only pays attention to the organ itself. The problem lies in the interpretations of what has been observed. This is when “scientific theory” turn into "narratives and academic fiction". Cholesterol plaque may in fact be present in the coronary artery however the interpretation that it is the cause of heart disease is an interpretation that is not based on true understanding. “World Research Foundation” (WRF) discovered that coronary artery occlusion was not always present in victims of fatal heart attacks.
The “risk factor theory” includes odd ideas such as failure to brush the teeth 2x/day. That again is not consistent. The risk factor theory is full of contradictions whether regarding history, diet or other considerations.
In 1979 Dr. Hamer looked beyond the organ level for the cause of diseases. Based on the premise that all bodily processes are controlled by the brain - he examined the brain scans of thousands of patients with all kinds of diseases and discovered that every patient had indications in their brain that corresponded with their particular disease. He further discovered that every patient who had suffered a heart attack showed without exception a white ring configuration in a brain scan on the right side of the brain in the cerebral cortex. He also considered the psyche (emotional and mental level in general) and all of them without exception had experienced a conflict shock. He recognized that the brain, the psyche and the organ are three components of a unit that all work together. The psyche is where the conflict is experienced. The brain registers the shock and relays the conflict message to the organ where the biological conflict is manifested.
The active phase of the disease includes either cell loss or cell proliferation and is part of a pre-programmed response to facilitate a resolution.
Diseases are significant biological programs that are created to assist the organ in dealing with the stress. Every cell in the human body is pre-programmed with biological survival programs.
Biological conflict experience connects us with all of life! This is why Dr. Hammer calls the principals of GNM “Biological Laws”.
5 Biological Laws
Each biological law is based on biological principals that are applicable to every human being.
1. Every “disease” originates from a conflict shock that occurs simultaneously in the psyche, the brain and the corresponding organ. The shock conflict is “very difficult, highly acute and isolating”. The experience of the shock occurs on three levels: the psyche, the brain and the organ. German New Medicine refers to this as a “DHS”: B****** Hamer Syndrome - named after the son of Dr. Hamer and whose death had shocked Dr. Hamer resulting in his testicular cancer. This experience launched Dr. Hamer into an extensive search for the cause since he had no history of illness prior to this event. (His wife also suffered with a breast cancer that directly corresponded with the “separation loss” theme of that biological program.) Conflict shock is a subjective experience. Each event can be experienced as a unique conflict i.e. divorce can be experienced as a “separation conflict”, an “anger conflict”, an “abandonment conflict”, a “lose conflict” and “abandonment conflict”, etc. Also the intensity of each conflict varies as well. In any case when the biological theme is triggered the biological survival program outplays accordingly.
2. Every Significant Biological Special Program has two-phases, provided there is a resolution to the conflict. The first phase is “conflict active” (CA) - a state of “lasting sympathcotonia” with increased stress with restlessness, sleeplessness for the purpose of resolving the conflict. It is a cold phase. All the cold symptoms occur during the CA phase. The second phase is “lasting vagotonia” (CL) a state of rest that comes with all the warm symptoms including fevers, inflammation.
3. The Ontogenetic Systems of Tumors and Cancer-Equivalent Diseases and the Ontogenetically supported System of Microbes. (Ontogenetic refers to embryonic development.) In the CA phase of each biological program there is either cell proliferation or cell loss. (Old brain controlled cells include cell proliferation. Cerebellum controlled cells include cell loss.) Then in CL the process is reversed and the organ/system is restored. Cell loss is now refilled. Cell proliferation is discharged by microbes that include several forms of bacteria, fungi, etc. that assist in the restoration process. Symptoms of swelling/edema occurs now as healing (warm phase) takes place in a fluid environment. The discharge (can be mixed with blood) now is part of the healing process. The same symptoms of swelling fever and discharge are also present with infections however microbes do not cause infection and are present in a vital role that is part of the healing process.
4. The Beneficial Role of Microbes. There is a correspondence between the embryonic-layer related organ groups – without exception in the CL phase and embryonically related groups of microbes.
5. Every “disease” is part of a significant biological special program that is created to assist an organism during unexpected distress.
IMO the findings of Dr. Hamer underscores the words of Weston A. Price: "Life in all its fullness is mother nature obeyed."
My conclusions. The complete understanding of what causes heart attacks requires a willingness to perceive and consider the individual as an integrated whole rather than exclusively focus on the heart or even just on the cardiovascular system (notwithstanding that our body, organs and systems were built-up from and continue to rely on good nutrition).
This all-inclusive perception includes understanding the embryonic and evolutionary journey that the human body has developed through and that is recapitulated in utero.
The literal "crown" of the master-building of the human physical temple most certainly includes the brain as the controller for the organs and systems in the body.
The last part of the whole picture here is realizing the connection between psyche and brain and that this equates to Psyche and Health!.
With the big (whole terrain) picture in view then one can more readily see how "shock conflicts" are simultaneously experienced in psyche/brain/body and that the body's innate intelligence includes the ability to respond to these experiences by launching special biological programs in order to assist the body in coping with the sudden and unexpected event that threw the individual off balance.
Then depending on the type of biological program (of either cell proliferation or cellular loss) and depending on the phase of the healing (either "conflict active" (CA) or resolving) the diet can certainly be adjusted to better support the body's needs during that phase as needed. Just as certainly any diet would consist of real nourishing foods and thereby qualify as food-as-medicine.
In any case (regarding disease as we now begin to see it from a new medicine perspective)) we need to ask ourselves "Can shock conflicts be avoided?" If you contemplate/consider this really well I think you will realize that given the very nature of shock conflicts - they do not pre-announce themselves and we are not able to be anticipate these totally unexpected events.
My question is to what extent can we quickly accept the sudden and most significant shocks and/or quickly resolve the conflicts that may follow those shocks that are not immediately acceptable to our psyche? Do you see where the challenge/opportunity here lies? IMO it is much less in the day-to-day dietary realm and more in the long-standing construct of our perception.
Bare in mind that this "conclusion" comes from a nutritional therapy chef who specializes in food-as-medicine and counts his membership in the Weston A. Price Foundation as probably the most fortunate membership of his entire life!
For more re: sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous system (from a Reiki perspective) See:
November 19th, 2014 -
I believe there is a spiritual component to all of this as well:
February 14 "Sweet Hearts Day!) 2018 -
"... No Medical Support For The Importance of Magnesium Sufficiency in Maintaining Heart Health". -
Dr. Carolyn Dean: "The Role of Magnesium Deficiency in Heart Arrhythmia" -
Why are so many hearts suddenly beating erratically and mystifying doctors?
1. Because they do not even measure magnesium when they investigate atrial fibrillation.
2. Because they don't ask their patients if they are drinking enough water.
3. Because they don't make sure their patients are taking enough magnesium and other minerals including sea salt in their water.
4. Because 80% of the population is magnesium deficient and heart palpitations are a symptom of magnesium deficiency.
I've had countless clients tell me that their doctors say magnesium is just a laxative and they should not use salt because they are convinced it causes high blood pressure. They have no idea that sea salt (with its 72 minerals) and sodium chloride (table salt) are completely different.
I've said many times that doctors do not see patients with AFib or other heart conditions getting better – so they assume that they have to keep patients on their drugs to have any hope of survival. They don't even pause to think that their drugs can be causing more magnesium and mineral deficiency and worsening of symptoms. Instead, they browbeat their patients into taking more medications and make patients' symptoms worse with their scare tactics.
Allopathic medicine has looked into the use of magnesium in atrial fibrillation but mostly when it is induced by surgery. During any surgical procedure the stress on the heart can be great and the heart can react by fibrillating. I attribute this to magnesium deficiency in the patient but most doctors just say it's due to "stress" on the heart.
Many patients have told me that their magnesium deficiency health problems began after surgery. However, it may not be just the physical effects of surgery that triggers AFib.
All medications can deplete magnesium, but few people realize that one of the major inhaled anesthetic drugs called Desflurane contains 6 fluoride molecules, which may bind with magnesium making it unavailable to the body. Desflurane has the following magnesium deficiency side effects:
There has been little emphasis on addressing magnesium deficiency, which does not mean it's not effective—it just means it hasn't been studied yet.
So, there you have it – as long as medicine refuses to use the ionized magnesium test to establish accurate levels of magnesium in the cells, we will have no medical support for the importance of magnesium sufficiency in maintaining heart health. We have to do our own studies on our own bodies. In clinical trials the number of participants is called "n". When it comes to magnesium, you have to do your own study with an n=1.
"Medications Can Cause Heart Failure" - presents a general overview on this subject that might not be available anywhere else and probably not from a medical doctor.
June12, 2018 - "Fluorides, the atomic bomb, and fake news" by Jon Rappoport
Faced with toxic fluorides destroying food crops, animal and human life, and with law suits piling up, atomic scientists decided they could distract the nation by promoting fluorides as a beneficial tooth treatment…
June 11, 2018
Occasionally, I reprint this article. I wrote it some years ago, during research on toxic chemicals pervading the landscape. I used to send the piece to mainstream reporters, but I eventually gave that up as a bad bet.
They’re dedicated to fake news…and now they’re losing control over public consciousness. Losing badly. Independent media are in the ascendance, and rightly so.
In 1997, Joel Griffiths and Chris Bryson, two respected mainstream journalists, peered into an abyss. They found a story about fluorides that was so chilling it had to be told.
The Christian Science Monitor, who had assigned the story, never published it.
Their ensuing article, “Fluoride, Teeth, and the Atomic Bomb,” has been posted on a number of websites.
Author Griffiths told me that researchers who study the effects of fluorides by homing in on communities with fluoridated drinking water, versus communities with unfluoridated water, miss a major point: studying the water is not enough; toxic fluorides are everywhere—they are used throughout the pharmaceutical industry in the manufacture of drugs, and also in many other industries (e.g., aluminum, pesticide).
I want to go over some of the major points of the Griffiths-Bryson article.
Griffiths discovered hundreds of documents from the World War 2 era. These included papers from the Manhattan Project, launched to build the first A-bomb.
Griffiths/Bryson write: “Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production…millions of tons…were essential for the manufacture of bomb-grade uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War.”
The documents reveal that fluoride was the most significant health hazard in the US A-bomb program, for workers and for communities around the manufacturing facilities.
Griffiths/Bryson: “Much of the original proof that fluoride is safe for humans in low doses was generated by A-bomb program scientists, who had been secretly ordered to provide ‘evidence useful in litigation’ [against persons who had been poisoned by fluoride and would sue for damages]… The first lawsuits against the US A-bomb program were not over radiation, but over fluoride damage, the [government] documents show.”
A-bomb scientists were told they had to do studies which would conclude that fluorides were safe.
The most wide-reaching study done was carried out in Newburgh, New York, between 1945 and 1956. This was a secret op called “Program F.” The researchers obtained blood and tissue samples from people who lived in Newburgh, through the good offices of the NY State Health Department.
Griffiths/Bryson found the original and secret version of this study. Comparing it to a different sanitized version, the reporters saw that evidence of adverse effects from fluorides had been suppressed by the US Atomic Energy Commission.
Other studies during the same period were conducted at the University of Rochester. Unwitting hospital patients were given fluorides to test out the results.
Flash forward. Enter Dr. Phyllis Mullenix (see also here), the head of toxicology at Forsyth Dental Center in Boston. In the 1990s, Mullenix did a series of animal studies which showed that, as Griffiths/Bryson write: “…fluoride was a powerful central nervous system (CNS) toxin…”
Mullenix applied for further grant monies from the National Institutes of Health. She was turned down. She was also told that fluorides do not have an effect on the CNS.
But Griffiths/Bryson uncovered a 1944 Manhattan Project memo which states: “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect…it seems most likely that the F [fluoride] component rather than the [uranium] is the causative factor.”
The 1944 memo was sent to the head of the Manhattan Project Medical Section, Colonel Stafford Warren. Warren was asked to give his okay to do animal studies on fluorides’ effects on the CNS. He immediately did give his approval.
But records of the results of this approved project are missing. Most likely classified.
Who was the man who made that 1944 proposal for a rush-program to study the CNS effects of fluorides? Dr. Harold Hodge, who worked at the Manhattan Project.
Who was brought in to advise Mullenix 50 years later at the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston, as she studied the CNS effects of fluorides? Dr. Harold Hodge.
Who never told Mullenix of his work on fluoride toxicity for the Manhattan Project? Dr. Harold Hodge.
Was Hodge brought in to look over Mullenix’s shoulder and report on her discoveries? It turns out that Hodge, back in the 1940s, had made suggestions to do effective PR promoting fluoride as a dental treatment. So his presence by Mullenix’s side, all those years later, was quite possibly as an agent assigned to keep track of her efforts.
Getting the idea here? Build an A-bomb. Forget the toxic fluoride consequences. Bury the fluoride studies. Twist the studies.
More on Hodge. In 1944, “a severe pollution incident” occurred in New Jersey, near the Du Pont plant in Deepwater where the company was trying to build the first A-bomb. A fluoride incident. Farmers’ peach and tomato crops were destroyed. Horses and cows became crippled. Some cows had to graze on their bellies. Tomato crops (normally sold to the Campbell Company for soups) were contaminated with fluorides.
The people of the Manhattan Project were terrified of lawsuits and ensuing revelations about the toxic nature of their work. A heads-up memo was written on the subject. Its author? Harold Hodge. Among other issues, he reported on the huge fluoride content in vegetables growing in the polluted area.
Also the high fluoride levels in human blood.
The farmers began to bring lawsuits. Big PR problem.
The lawsuits were settled quietly, for pittances.
Harold Hodge wrote another memo. Get this quote: “Would there be any use in making attempts to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the part of residents [near the A-bomb facility]…through lectures on F [fluoride] toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of F in tooth health?”
Griffiths/Bryson write: “Such lectures were indeed given, not only to New Jersey citizens but to the rest of the nation throughout the Cold War.”
This was a launching pad for fluorides as “successful dental treatments.”
Now you know why promoting toxic fluorides as a dental treatment was so important to government officials.
Footnote: In Stanley Kubrick’s 1964 film, Dr. Strangelove, Brigadier General Jack D. Ripper rails about the destruction fluorides are wreaking on the “pure blood of pure Americans.” Of course, General Ripper is fleshed out as a crazy right-wing fanatic. He’s ready and willing to start a nuclear war. How odd. Apparently unknown to the Strangelove script writers, fluorides were, in fact, very toxic and were an integral part of the program that created atomic bombs in the first place…
"Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb", more commonly known as Dr. Strangelove, is a 1964 political satire black comedy film that satirizes the Cold War fears of a nuclear conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States.
I saw Dr. Strangelove when it first came out in 1964 and have some memory of the General Ripper character but don't fully recall his "rails about the destruction fluorides" and yet I have some memory of the “pure blood of pure Americans” part. Almost makes me want to see the film again not only for that moment but also to enjoy watching Peter Sellers perform his three characters. Originally he was asked to play four roles! One of my all time favorite actors!
More "Strangelove" - Critical response -
Dr. Strangelove is Kubrick's highest rated film on Rotten Tomatoes, holding a 99% approval rating (based on 76 reviews) with an average rating of 9.1/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Stanley Kubrick's brilliant Cold War satire remains as funny and razor-sharp today as it was in 1964." The film also holds a score of 96 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 11 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim." The film is ranked number 7 in the All-Time High Scores chart of Metacritic's Video/DVD section. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
Dr. Strangelove is on Roger Ebert's list of The Great Movies, and he described it as "arguably the best political satire of the century". One of the most celebrated of all film comedies, it is the only one that made the top 10 in the 2002 Sight & Sound directors' poll, and John Patterson of The Guardian wrote, "There had been nothing in comedy like Dr Strangelove ever before. All the gods before whom the America of the stolid, paranoid 50s had genuflected – the Bomb, the Pentagon, the National Security State, the President himself, Texan masculinity and the alleged Commie menace of water-fluoridation – went into the wood-chipper and never got the same respect ever again." It is also listed as number 26 on Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time, and in 2010 it was listed by Time magazine as one of the 100 best films since the publication's inception in 1923. The Writers Guild of America ranked its screenplay the 12th best ever written.
In 2000, readers of Total Film magazine voted it the 24th greatest comedic film of all time.
Reading the above "Critical response" raised my interest to revisit the film a notch or two, however (IMO) it should be seen on a big screen rather than a typical TV.
Also see: http://faroutradio.com/stanley-kubrick-warned-of-fluoride-evils-50-years-ago/
The article includes is a video clip of the "Brigadier General Jack D. Ripper" scene (mentioned above) and that I intend to review in a day (even though it won't be on a "big screen" ; ~ ).
February 16, 2019 -
"There appears to be an epidemic of heart failure in the Western world. But, in my opinion, hearts aren't failing; it's doctors who are failing to treat magnesium deficiency, which is an underlying cause of heart disease and subsequent heart failure. The problem begins with the very name that doctors use for this disease. They don't seem to realize that a declaration that the patient's heart is failing sets the patient up for just that!
February has been designated as Heart Month but in my world every day is a new opportunity to take more people off the magnesium deficiency list and place them firmly on the magnesium saturation list!
 "Today's Wellness Tip From the Future...with Dr. Carolyn Dean" via emailed newsletter.
 From subscription email Re: "RnA ReSet Radio Show Summary of Monday February 11, 2019."
heart disease, coronary arteries, Dr. Cowan, myocardium, Townsend Letter, Wise Tradtions, coronary artery theory, lowfat diet, foods of commerce, rat poison, coumadin, blood thinner, warfarin, german new medicine, Five Biological Laws, Cholesterol theory, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic, Tom Petty, sugar, stent, magnesium
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