Emerging trends in science and biotechnology
by #228902

What are troponins and why are they important   14 d  
Troponins play an important role in cardiac and skeletal muscles, also detecting troponin levels is a good indicator for heart attack. Some of the most common troponin’s that are frequently measured include troponin-C, troponin-I and troponin-T.
 
Troponins are described as proteins which are present in skeletal and cardiac muscles. In majority of cases these are often released into the blood stream when the heart becomes strained, under stress or even damaged. Detecting the concentration of troponin present can provide a good indication of whether one is experiencing a heart attack or not. In the past blood test were the favoured method for detecting a heart attack, however, now it been proven that measuring troponin levels offers a more sensitive and a more muscle specific test. There are three different types of troponin ...   read more



 
Structure and function of cadherins   14 d  
Cadherins play an important role in junction formation between two cells, examples of the classical cadherins include: E-cadherin, N-cadherin, N-cadherin-2 and P-cadherin.
 
Cadherins are described as the primary components of junctions that exist between two cells, they are essentially proteins that function in sticking two cells together. At the junction point, cadherins are present on the cell surface and they are able to hook onto each other, in a manner very similar to how velcro works. During the process of tissue differentiation, cadherin mediated cell to cell adhesion is vital in keeping the cells and tissues held together as the process embryonic development is able to continue in an orderly fashion. There are evidence to indicate that if this proce ...   read more



 
Detection of adenovirus infections   14 d  
Adenoviruses can be detected using various methods such as molecular detection (e.g. PCR), antigen detection (e.g. ELISA), chest image testing, virus isolation and virus neutralization.
 
Adenoviruses can be described as a family of viruses that are responsible for causing infections to the airways, lungs, nervous system, eyes, intestines and urinary tract. Some of the common symptoms of this infection are coughs, fever, sore throats, pink eye and diarrhea. Majority of the infections tend to occur in children, where it has been found that by the age of 10 a child would have been infected by at least one type of adenovirus. However, these infections are mostly mild and no special medication is required since they tend to clear on their own after a few days. However, extra ...   read more



 
Testing thyroglobulin   20 d  
The testing of thyroglobulin is instrumental in evaluating how effective a treatment has been for the removal of thyroid cancer and it can also be used to monitor any possibility of recurrence post-surgery.
 
Thyroglobulin is found to be only produced by the thyroid tissues within our body. The follicles that are present in the thyroid glands are responsible for making this glycosylated protein. In order to better understand the various thyroid conditions, a thyroglobulin test can be performed. This test can either be done alone or as part of a screen panel using many different thyroid tests. When this is tested alone, majority of the time it involves the use of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies which can either be thyroid peroxidase antibodies ( TPO-Ab), thyroglobulin autoantibodies ( Tg-Ab). EL ...   read more



 
Different types of autoimmune disease   3 mon  
Autoimmune diseases are defined as conditions which lead to the immune system by mistake attacking its own body. In this process autoantibodies are produced and released in order to attack normal healthy cells. There are many different types of autoimmune diseases which have been discovered (approx. 80-100) and some of the common ones are discussed in this article.
 
Autoimmune diseases are the result of the body attacking and damaging its own shelf, in many cases this is due to the fact it is unable to distinguish foreign bodies from self. This can lead to either high activity or abnormally low activity of the immune system, both of these situations result in the body being more vulnerable to infections and having decreased ability to fight off foreign invaders. In autoimmune diseases the body’s immune system responds to an unidentified trigger which causes it to produce antibodies that attack its own tissue instead of fighting infection. ...   read more



 
Interleukins – complex immunomodulatory functions   5 mon  
Interleukins were first identified by scientist as cytokines which target white blood cells (leukocytes). They can function as either signal molecules or secreted proteins where they are involved in process such as activation, differentiation, cell proliferation, maturation and migration.
 
Interleukins (ILs) are classified within the cytokine family of proteins and these can either be in the form of secreted proteins or signal molecules. They have an array of functions which can include: activation, cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and maturation. Initially, interleukins were discovered as being expressed by leukocytes (white blood cells), however, many can now be synthesised by monocytes, helper CD4 T lymphocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. Interleukins, can trigger a response via binding with cell surface receptors which can lead to the act ...   read more



 
Cardiac Markers - useful diagnosis tool for heart attack   5 mon  
Cardiac markers are substances that are released into the blood when a heart is under stress or damaged. These are essential tools when analysing heart function or diagnosing a heart attack.
 
Cardiac markers are regarded as a useful tool in analysing heart function, these are substances that are released by a damaged or stressed heart into the blood. Therefore, the measurement of these biomarker substances can be critical in the detection of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cardiac ischemia. Both of these conditions are linked with insufficient blood flow to the heart. Conditions when the heart is experiencing severe stress leads to the presence of these biomarkers into the blood, especially after a heart attack. The measurement of these cardiac markers makes it possible to ...   read more



 
Food analytics tests to detect microbiological contaminants   9 mon  
Performing a basic food analytic ELISA test has been found to be useful for analysing and measuring any microbiological residues and contaminants that may be present in various food types.
 
A food allergy can be described as an abnormal immune response to food. The complexity with which food is able to affect our everyday life for these many unexplained symptoms, coupled with the fact that it is difficult to diagnose has made this topic an emerging area for scientific research. In theory virtually any food has the potential to cause an allergic reaction, however, there are certain type of foods which have been identified that are responsible for majority of food allergies. In general, one of the most common form of food allergy is caused by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) ...   read more



 
Salivary diagnostics rapidly becoming a popular choice   12 mon  
Can saliva really offer a viable option to serum as a biological fluid in order to analyse oral or systemic diseases.
 
Saliva is a biological fluid which is increasing in popularity for many novel approaches and is being incorporated for disease prognosis, laboratory or clinical diagnosis, monitoring and management of patients with oral or systemic diseases. As a sample, saliva can be very easily collected and since it contains majority of specific biological markers, this makes it ideal for early detection of diseases. The main advantages of collecting saliva samples is that it is a non-invasive process and can be carried out by individuals without needing any special training. This is in compari ...   read more



 
 

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