Many more benefits of Triphala (effective against coxsackie B3
Much more than a natural source of Vitamin C (amla)
Studied as being effective against Coxsackie Virus B3. Ascaris
is a carrier of Coxsackie.
Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) is believed to be a major contributor to viral myocarditis since virus-associated apoptosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of experimental myocarditis. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antiviral activities of Phyllaemblicin B, the main ellagitannin compound isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, a Chinese herb medicine, against CVB3.
Triphala is regarded as an important rasayana in Ayurvedic medicine. Medicines of the rasayana group are believed to promote health, immunity, and longevity. According to Ayurveda, they strengthen all tissues of the body, prevent aging, promote intellect, and prevent disease.1
The recipe for this traditional herbal supplement dates back to thousands of
years and is referred in the traditional Indian texts the Charak and Sushrut
Samhitas (1500 B.C.) Triphala is considered a ‘tridoshic rasayan’
having balancing and rejuvenating effects on the three constitutional elements
that govern human life: Vata which regulates the nervous system, Pitta which
maintains metabolic processes, and Kapha which supports structural integrity.2
Triphala is used in Ayurvedic medicine in the treatment of a variety of conditions and also forms part of many other Ayurvedic formulations. Conditions for which Triphala is employed include headache, dyspepsia, constipation, liver conditions, ascites, and leucorrhoea. It is also used as a blood purifier and a purgative and to improve the mental faculties and is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic, hypoglycemic, and anti-aging properties.1; 3-6
Terminalia chebula is belongs to the family Combretaceae commonly
know as ‘haritaki’ in Ayurveda. The dried fruits are rich in tannins.
The fruits also contain a variety of carbohydrates, glucose and sorbitol etc.,
The pericarp of the fruit contains anthraquinone glycosides, which are responsible
for the laxative effect.6 The presence of saponins, anthrones
and anthranols has also been documented.8
Importance of Terminalia chebula in Ayurveda
In Ayurveda it is used as digestive, antiseptic, alterative, laxative, diuretic and carminative’7. It is further considered as blood purifier and anti-pyretic, and is used to strengthen the sense organs, to heal wounds and peptic ulcers, for skin and eye diseases, diabetes, chronic and recurrent fever, anaemia, hypertension, heart conditions, ascites, diarrhoea, vomiting, hepatosplenomegaly, irritable bowel syndrome, dysentery, haemorrhoids, cough, hoarseness and dyspnoea1; 7; 9.
Scientific studies on Terminalia chebula
Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine including Terminalia chebula and Embelica officinalis were evaluated. All the six rasayana have showed significant activity 1.
Extracts of the Terminalia chebula fruit pericarp have demonstrated cardio tonic activity in isolated frog hearts8. The extracts had a positive inotropic action, increasing the force of contraction and cardiac output, without increasing heart rate.
Terminalia chebula inhibited the development of experimental duodenal ulcers and appeared to exert a cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa in vivo9.
An aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula has been investigated as a potential anti-caries and anti-plaque agent11. The growth of Streptococcus mutants, which is directly involved in the development of dental caries through the production of enamel degrading acids, was strongly inhibited by the extract.
Fruits of Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica were stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol 24.
Haridradi Ghrita, a poly herbal formulation consisting of Terminalia
chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Embelica officinalis, Sida cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza
glabra, Azadirachita indica and Cowghee was evaluated for immunomodulatory
activity by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling)
immune responses to the antigenic challenge by sheep RBCs and by neutrophil
adhesion test 28.
Terminalia bellerica is belongs to the family Combretaceae commonly
known as ‘vibhitaki’ in Ayurveda. The dried fruit contains about
20% of both condensed and hydrolysable tannins. Other constituents include lipids,
b-sitosterol, saponins, gallic and ellagic acids and their derivatives, glycosides
and various carbohydrates.
Importance of Terminalia bellerica in Ayurveda
In Ayurveda it is used as bitter, acrid, astringent, laxative, germicidal and antipyretic and is applied in a diverse range of conditions including cough, tuberculosis, eye diseases, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation of the small intestine, biliousness, flatulence, liver disease and leprosy. It is also said to cleanse the blood and the voice and to promote hair growth7; 12.
Terminalia bellerica fruit is also used in Egyptian folk medicine 10.
Scientific studies on Terminalia bellerica
Terminalia bellerica Fruit extract has anti-bacterial activity against Micrococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli 6.
Oral administration of a water-soluble fraction of the Terminalia bellerica fruit demonstrated significant hepatoprotective activity in vivo against experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride 13.
An alcoholic extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit was found to have a marked stimulant effect on the secretion of bile in vivo. The total solid content of the bile was also increased. An aqueous extract had poor activity in the same test model 12.
An open clinical study in 93 patients suffering from respiratory conditions found that vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) had anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, expectorant and anti-tussive effects14.
Oral administration of the Terminalia bellerica extract (100 mg/kg body weight) reduced the blood Sugar
level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly.
The antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of 12 Indian medicinal plants including Terminalia bellerica were evaluated by in-vitro DPPH method and lipid peroxidation assay. The results suggest that all the tested plant materials have moderate to potent antioxidant activity 25.
Phyllanthus embelica is belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae commonly
known as ‘amalaki’ in Ayurveda. Phyllanthus embelica contains
a range of tannins and other phenolic compounds. These include hydrolysable
tannins (10-12%). including emblicanins A and B, punigluconin, pedunculagin15;
16, and an ellagitannin, putranjivain A10. It also
contains the flavonoid quercetin17.
Importance of Phyllanthus embelica in Ayurveda
It is an important rasayana drug in its own right, used for the treatment of diseases caused by morbid vata, pitta and kapha and regarded as being able to impart youthful vigour and strength. It is considered astringent, bitter, digestive, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic and tonic. It has been used in the treatment of vomiting, haemorrhage, fever, coughs, eye inflammation, ulceration, anorexia, scurvy, diabetes, jaundice, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, and toxicosis. It is also said to relieve thirst, burning sensations, impurity of the blood and to promote abundant hair growth and has been used for the treatment of the common cold, scurvy, cancer and heart disease 7;18;19. Phyllanthus embelica fruit is a major constituent of many Ayurvedic tonics prescribed for rejuvenation, recuperation and vitality 20.
Scientific studies on Phyllanthus embelica
A simple aqueous extract of Phyllanthus embelica fruit was shown to protect mice against the chromosome damaging effects of the well-known carcinogen 3,4-benzo (a) pyrene 21.
Another study showed an aqueous extract of Phyllanthus embelica to significantly reduce induced solid tumours in mice in a manner suggesting interaction with cell cycle regulation 22.
Extracts of Phyllanthus embelica fruit inhibited the proliferation of four human tumour cell lines in vitro 23.
An extract of Phyllanthus embelica fruit and the flavonoid constituent quercetin were shown to provide significant protection against liver toxicity caused by ethanol and paracetamol in vivo 17.
An aqueous extract of Phyllanthus embelica fruit protected mice against the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of lead and aluminium salts 19.
The fruit of Phyllanthus embelica was shown to contain a number of compounds with potent inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase 10.
Eumil, is a poly herbal formulation comprising the standardized extract of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asparagus racemosus and Embelica officinalis has shown significant adaptogenic and antistress activity 26
The immunomodulatory properties of amla and shankh pusphi were evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat model. The observations suggest that the both the herbal extracts can be used to treat arthritis 27.
Triphala is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of the dried
fruits of three medicinal plants, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica,
and Phyllanthus emblica, also known as the three myrobalans. Triphala
means three (tri) fruits (phala). Triphala is used in Ayurvedic medicine in
the treatment of a variety of conditions and also forms part of many other Ayurvedic
formulations. The combined effect of three plants in Triphala claimed to possess
many pharmacological properties. This review mainly focuses on importance of
individual constituents of Triphala.