Additional information: ... ... 1) Inactivation studies on the effects of PEF on bacterial spore...
1) Inactivation studies on the effects of PEF on bacterial spores
are scarce and results vary. Early studies (Sale and Hamilton 1967) reported that Bacillus spp. spores were resistant to exponential wave PEF with strength fields up to 30 kV/cm. Only after germination did they become sensitive to PEF.
This is one reason why Dr. Clark recommended a 20 minute rest between zapping sessions.
2) Treatment time is defined as the product of the number pulses and the pulse duration. An increase in any of these variables increases microbial inactivation ... The inactivation of microorganisms increases with an increase in treatment time
So, in cases where lower voltages are applied, the effects can be compensated for by increasing the time of application / number of pulses applied.
The information provided give a basis for the efficacy of Hulda Clark
type zappers in the suppression of microbial activity. The results of such application of low voltage pulsed electric fields on water based environments may be viewed as proof of potential effectiveness for ParaZapper only as so far, it is the only product of this type which has been successful in such a complete range of microbial inactivation: http://huldaclarkparazapper.com/cart/images/Water_zapping_jars_b_070813_reg.jpg
This is believed to be as a result of the multi-frequency application of square waves.