2011 Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Candida in Biofilm
???Maybe one can extrapolate these results below about biofilm communities of Candida, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus to the gut as well...the intestinal wall is an even better ecosystem than a voice prostheses when the bifidobacteria are low in number???
???So lactobacillus doesn’t need iron, so its share of iron in the biofilm can be used by Streptococcus, and Candida???
2011 Title: “Composition and architecture of biofilms
on used voice prostheses.”
Excerpts: from Abstract:
>>Voice prostheses … deteriorate within 3 to 4 months due to adhering biofilms…
>>these biofilms are dominated by Candida and lactobacilli.
>>Candida are the predominant fungi in the biofilms, while lactobacilli are the predominant bacteria in all investigated biofilms, followed by streptococci.
FISH shows that lactobacilli and streptococci seem to have an important interaction with fungi.
2011 Title: “Identification and characterisation of an iron-responsive candidate probiotic.”
Excerpts from abstract:
>>Iron is an essential cofactor in almost all biological systems.
>>The lactic acid bacteria (LAB), are unusual in having little or no requirement for iron. Iron in the human body is sequestered by transferrins and lactoferrin, limiting bacterial growth.
…high iron conditions, LAB are rapidly out-competed;
…for the levels of probiotic bacteria to be maintained under high iron conditions they must be able to respond by increasing growth rate to compete with the normal flora.
>>Streptococcus thermophilus can increase growth rate in response to increased iron availability. The isolate of S. thermophilus selected was able to reduce epithelial cell death as well as NF-κB signalling and IL-8 production triggered by pathogens.
It was capable of crossing an epithelial cell barrier
in conjunction with E. coli and downregulating Th1 and Th17 responses in primary human intestinal leukocytes.
… offer an alternative paradigm which considers that probiotics should be able to be competitive during periods of intestinal bleeding, trauma or stress.
>>identified peptidoglycan (PGN) —
a carbohydrate from bacteria —
as a factor responsible for causing
the conversion of the otherwise harmless C. albicans
to its infectious form.
>>Previous research breakthroughs
by the IMCB team included
the discovery of the gene involved
in triggering the infectious form of C. albicans,
as well as the way in which the gene
and its by-products facilitated
the transformation process of the fungus