Chlorine dioxide will form an acid when mixed with water, the pH is quite low. If this enters the blood stream, it will react with the blood's buffer system, since the body tries to keep the pH of blood around 7. There the acid (H2ClO3) will be neutralized and converted into a salt. Will it just be converted back to NaClO2, what we have started with?? Or some other form of salt, like KClO2 or Ca(ClO2)2? The whole thing doesn't make sense to me. The acid that forms with ClO2 can't stay that way in the body. I have some background in chemistry (see my previous post) but that is quite a while ago.
Is there anybody out there with better background in chemistry than me to answer this question?
I did one experiment: I made some activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement and added baking soda until my pH paper showed pH 7. Lots of bubbles (CO2 released from sodium carbonate) were released. I needed quite a bit of the backing soda, so activated MMS is quite acidic! After that I tasted the neutralized solution - it didn't taste like chlorine anymore, so it must have converted back into a salt! And that is what I think happens in the body.
So is taking MMS straight without activation the same??
When sodium chlorite is activated properly chlorous acid is formed. The resultant solution has some free chlorine dioxide along with the chlorous acid. As the chlorine dioxide is used up, the chlorous acid breaks down releasing more chlorine dioxide in an effort to maintain balance in the chemistry.
The ingestion of chlorous acid has not been studied in humans.
When a sodium chlorite solution is ingested, it is speculated that activation takes place in the stomach. Since stomach acid is HCl, all of the available chlorine dioxide should be released and no chlorous acid is formed.
We do know from studies done with chlorine dioxide (not chlorous acid) that chlorine dioxide immediately breaks down to chlorite ions in the body. Concentrations of chlorine dioxide have never been measured in the blood, so we don't really know if it lasts long enough to get into the blood stream. Chlorite ions have a half life of about 42 hours in the various organs of the body. Some of the chlorite ions do form salt in the body, and the rest is passed out in the urine.
There is often a wide gap between what Jim Humble thinks takes place and the actual Science of what takes place. It appears that Jim Humble has no interest in resolving these issues, so we are left with a bit of a mystery.
I also read about the reactance product of chlorite. And yes, if sodium chlorite is ingested it should react with the stomach acid to release chlorine dioxide.
A friend of mine told me an amazing success story about an acquaintance of his that got really sick from toxic mold that this guy's doctor didn't give him much longer to live. My friend gave him a bottle of Miracle-Mineral-Supplement and after taking Miracle-Mineral-Supplement (activated with lemon juice) and quickly getting to 15 drops (I think per day) he got well. When he told my friend that he got a clean bill of health from his doctor, he had tears in his eyes!
I have two root canals - and Dr. Hussar here in Reno told me that root canals are always infected. I knew about the connection between dental (& gum) health and arthritis and cardiovascular health. A few weeks ago, when I felt pain in my left hand and fingers, I took activated MMS and the next day it was gone. Amazing.
But I want to understand the underlying chemistry better. I wonder in what form it will be transported through the body, because it does work. I need to know how it can survive in the presence of a buffer. Way back in chemistry I learned that a strong acid and a weak salt (salt formed from a weak acid) will react to form a strong salt and a weak acid. Example is backing soda to eliminate too much stomach acid. It forms to table salt and carbonic acid, where most of it is released as carbon dioxide.
So what happens when chlorine dioxide interacts with a buffer, like a phosphate based buffer solution? I have to read more about it.
I read on http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/mdbp/pdf/alter/chapt_4.pdf
Section 220.127.116.11 that chlorine dioxide changes its effectiveness to kill pathogens when the pH is varied - so I must have been mistaken, chlorine dioxide may exist at neutral or even alkaline pH values! The document cites the scientific literature that a higher pH is more effective.
I really don't understand chlorine dioxide and how it stays in molecular form in an alkaline solutions.
The document also says that chlorine dioxide is more effective at higher temperatures (Section 18.104.22.168).
A search on Google showed possible use of phosphate based buffer solutions to achieve near neutral pH with chlorine dioxide. I guess it must be possible with the correct buffer chemicals.
I'll post more on this subject as I learn more about it.
Sorry if I'm just stating the obvious, but I want to understand this too. Is it possible that activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement is effective because chlorous acid is carried in the blood releasing small amounts of CLO2 as it travels through the bloodstream? I know that early on when I took activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement something was reacting in my body because I could feel tiny explosions of intense heat in my left foot. That could have been chlorous acid carried by the blood that released some CLO2 at that site, where it presumably reacted with pathogens there. And then, to restate what you said above, unactivated MMS is ineffective when ingested because no chlorous acid forms to be taken up by the bloodstream. Unactivated MMS releases CLO2 in the stomach, but that immediately becomes a salt which is not reactive in the bloodstream.
I have recently tried ingesting very small amounts of unactivated MMS (1 drop of 22% MMS in a cup of water). It is SO much easier to drink that way, but I see now that it's not likely to do much good. And indeed, as far as I could tell it didn't do much.
There are no studies looking at how chlorous acid behaves in the body, so we don't know if it gets into the blood stream or not.
I never said that sodium chlorite by itself is ineffective. Jim Humble reported wonderful success with it on his first trip to Africa. Miracle-Mineral-Supplement evolved because he thought that if a little bit was good, a whole lot more should be even better. Also, he was looking for a way to speed the process up.
I don't happen to agree with him. If a little bit works, stick with it, and a little patience often goes a long way. Most people don't get ill overnight so why should we expect healing to take place within a few hours...?
Our group has seen very good results using low concentration sodium chlorite solutions. It takes a couple of months for the process to work, but the lack of adverse side effects makes that worth the extra time it takes.
We are working with 0.045 ml of Miracle-Mineral-Supplement (about 3/4 of a drop) in 1 liter of water. We actually use a 5% sodium chlorite solution which makes measuring much easier.
Chlorine dioxide remains a gas in solution and doesn't have a PH associated with it.
When you bubble chlorine dioxide through water, the PH of the water remains the same.
When the PH of sodium chlorite is lowered by adding acid to it, chlorous acid is formed. It is the chlorous acid that accounts for the lower PH. Chlorine dioxide is a gas and has no PH associated with it.
I have been working with a dentist on a very strong mouthwash. It is made from using HCl to activate sodium chlorite. In addition to making sure that the chlorine dioxide concentration is kept below levels that do damage to the gum tissue and enamel on the teeth, we also have to be mindful of the PH of the solution. I have been using Baking Soda to buffer the solution with excellent results.
As you know, the activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement solution will easily bleach colored fabric - I have had many little spills and can attest to this. I made some activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement and then tested with pH paper and it showed acidity, however this could be due to a remaining amount of citric acid , or due to the formation of chlorous acid as you proposed. I used backing soda to neutralize the activated MMS solution until the pH paper showed ~pH 7. Then I applied a drop of this to some colored fabric and the bleaching was very much reduced, only a faintly brighter spot on the fabric.
I concluded from this that most of the ClO2 in the solution must have been converted back to NaClO2 - but I am not sure about this, at least the ClO2 was mostly gone.
Will ClO2, when bubbled through water, not bleach fabric? Isn't the oxidizing nature of ClO2 that should cause bleaching of the fabric? I haven't tried whether the un-activated MMS solution may also cause bleaching. Or is it that when mixing MMS with citric acid most of it is converted into chlorous acid, and very little ClO2 is formed? Or most of the ClO2 escapes inot the air (everybody can tell that it smells very strong right after mixing)?
So at low pH chlorous acid is formed when you mix MMS with citric acid. Especially, when you use the amounts usually proposed on the Internet. On this forum I posted an analysis that showed that one should only use one drop of 50% citric acid for two drops of MMS. If you mix it 1:1 it is very acidic due to the large amounts of citric acid that is left over from the reaction. But even in the case where you mix it right, the initial low pH probably produces ClO2- ions that form HClO2, which is chlorous acid. Chlorous acid, according to Wikipedia, is highly unstable and will decay into hypochlorous (HClO) and chloric (HClO3) acid. Now I understand that if you would use ClO2 gas and bubble it through water it will stay in the gaseous form as long as the pH is not too low (the literature says it is usable between pH 5 Ė 10).
In the above link it states that it effectively destroys bio films of bacteria and it does that by capturing a free electron thereby converting to a negative chlorite ion. This chlorite ion supposedly will convert back to chlorine dioxide when the pH is lowered, destroying bacteria that formed the acid environment. So a single chlorine dioxide molecule may perform multiple attacks against acidic bio films, interesting! But that could also mean that the salt, NaClO2 may be used effectively for oral hygiene, because it dissociates in water to Na+ ClO2- and when the chlorite ion encounters an acidic bio film, it becomes activated, destroying the bacteria.
I also worked with my dentist on the ClO2, I educated him about the benefits of MMS with regard to dental and gum health and gave him a copy of Jim Humble's book and a bottle of MMS. He found a toothpaste from CLOOSYS, that supposedly contains ClO2 but it does not make bleaching stains, I used it for a while. My dentist says that he sees very good results in his patients with the CLOOSYS toothpaste and mouthwash (which I didn't try, maybe the mouthwash has ClO2 in it).
There are other companies (such as DioxiCare) that make oral hygiene products containing ClO2. I also found patents on buffered ClO2 for oral hygiene on the Internet. It looks like industry becomes aware of the benefit of ClO2 for oral hygiene!
So the only remaining question for me is how to produce a pH neutral solution of ClO2 when you use MMS and citric acid (in the proper stoichiometric amounts). Maybe one should first dilute both MMS and the citric acid before mixing them? It should reduce the amount of ClO2 that escapes into the air. Will that lower the chance of producing chlorous acid? Maybe after that one could add some backing soda and everything is fine?
Bleaching occurs when the concentration exceeds about 1000 PPM free chlorine dioxide. When you activate a dose of Miracle-Mineral-Supplement , you end up with a concentration of about 26880 PPM free chlorine dioxide. This is why the proper dilution is so important.
Jim Humble several times in his book talks about only needing a dose with 1 PPM free chlorine dioxide, but I have never been able to reproduce that using the measurements he gives. If you follow the Miracle-Mineral-Supplement protocol, you end up with much higher concentrations of free chlorine dioxide. This, combined with the low PH of the solution, results in nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In other words a mild case of poisoning.
If you follow the activation outlined in the MMS protocol, that is using 5 drops of 10% citric acid for every 1 drop of MMS, you end up with chlorous acid plus an excess of citric acid .
Industry uses these products to keep meat, fruit, vegetables, and seafood from spoiling. They have found that the optimum activation with 10% citric acid involves a 1:1 ratio. Actually they use 50% citric acid and activate using 5 parts sodium chlorite to 1 part 50% citric acid.
I have run a lot of tests on activation, looking at efficacy, and have found that "industry" activation produces a solution that is about 30% more effective in oxidation potential than "MMS" activation. In this case it seems that industry has done a good job at figuring out the most effective activation. It is unfortunate that Jim Humble didn't review what industry was doing before he came up with his MMS protocol. Industry has been using these products for about 15 years, which predates Jim Humbles "discovery" of adding an acid to sodium chlorite to activate it.
MMS is a very high concentration of sodium chlorite. I have advised everyone that I come into contact with to dilute it down to a much safer to handle and use 5% concentration. You can do everything with the 5% concentration that you can do with MMS by simple adjusting the measurements used. The advantage of MMS comes into play when backpacking in the wilderness. However, the dangers of handling the higher concentration sodium chlorite solution and the small amounts needed in most cases offset the slight weight savings from carrying a more concentrated solution.
For example, to purify 1000 liters of wilderness water you would use about 30 ml of MMS, and 133 ml of a 5% sodium chlorite solution. This amounts to about 100 grams difference initially, but since you use more of the 5% solution, the extra weight would only be an issue during the first part of the trip.
The use of sodium chlorite and chlorine dioxide in mouthwash products has been going on for at least 10 years. The main use is to eliminate mouth odor and that has been well studied and documented. When you go beyond that and start to claim improved oral hygiene, the FDA becomes involved and that process can have some difficulties.
I might suggest that instead of shooting for a PH of 7, why not live with a PH of 6.5? I might also suggest using the industrial standard activation. This would involve putting 5 parts MMS into a glass, adding 1 part 50% citric acid, and letting the activation take place over a period of 10 minutes. Then add the amount of water you need to bring the free chlorine dioxide concentration to where it is needed, then add a small amount of baking soda to buffer the PH.
If you would use less citric acid than the stoichiometric optimal ratio, you will not activate all of the sodium chlorite and you would ingest some amount of sodium chlorite. This would then become activated when it hits the stomach acid.
Is there any benefit at all to activate sodium chlorite when it is ingested? Or would you use the partially activated solution for oral hygiene?
If you have papers or links about the chlorine dioxide chemistry to share, I would like to obtain them to further educate myself.
Another complexity is that the conversion of sodium chlorite to chlorine dioxide is only about 60% efficient.
MMS is a 28% by weight mixture of 80% pure sodium chlorite. That leaves us with 22.4%. From this we would expect to have a yield of 224000 PPM available chlorine dioxide. However, we never seem to be able to obtain more than 134400 PPM.
If you re-figure your stoichiometric ratio based on yield, you should find that the optimum activation actually involves adding a little more acid than is needed.
I have not been able to determine what all is involved in this, but do know that optimum activation is based on experimentation. The stoichiometric ratio serves as a starting point, then efficacy curves are developed from there. Industry is also worried about corrosion and purity, so this has resulted in using 50% citric acid in a 1:5 ratio. They are frequently using a 5% sodium chlorite concentration and this activation works the best without forming excessive impurities. citric acid can alter the taste of a food product, so they are not interested in over activation.
A lot of the information I have come up with has come directly from handbooks on water purification. You can go to Amazon and find numerous handbooks on this topic.
Come to mind, if one of the byproducts of the sodium chlorite production is sodium chlorate, then one should not ingest un-activated Miracle-Mineral-Supplement - but I don't know what the remaining few percentages repesent that are in MMS. Or is it just table salt ?