Home Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Therapy
Fecal Transfusion, Fecal Transplant, Stool Transplant, Poop Transplant, Fecal Enema, Human Probiotic Insuflation Therapy, Fecal Bacteriotherapy

Written by White Shark, 2009

What is Fecal Colon Microbiota Transplant? What is Home Fecal transplant?

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) also known as a stool transplant  is the process of transplantation of feces (poop) from a healthy individual (donor) into a not as healthy individual (recipient). It has been proven to be a highly effective treatment for patients suffering from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), chronic bowel diseases and very many other diseases seemingly unrelated to bowel health, like for example Parkinson's disease, Schizophrenia, Clinical depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, etc.

The main purpose of fecal transplant (poop transplant) is to get widest range of live, healthy bacteria into recipients colon. No other known therapy could achieve the same result.

Can this therapy be done at your home?  Yes, easily.  Get fresh healthy feces from your donor. Liquefy feces using a kitchen blender. Suck the liquefied feces into a rectal syringe, empty the syringe into your rectum, keep the liquefied feces inside your colon for at least 2 hours or longer, and you are cured. If not cured after a single transplant, repeat it tomorrow, and tomorrow, until cured. Some pople have repeated the transplant for 30 days until cured. That is the therapy. Can it be more simple?!
How to do it yourself at home?   Read here


To do fecal transplant, you need a fresh feces from a very healthy donor.

Clean water is used as a simple and inexpensive "vehicle" to implant new bowel flora to a recipients colon. Recipient is usually a person suffering from chronic health problems and may have a history of use of oral antibiotics and many other medications.

Previous terms for the procedure are listed here: fecal bacteriotherapy, fecal transfusion, fecal transplant, stool transplant, poop transplant, fecal enema, human probiotic infusion (HPI).

Because the procedure involves the complete restoration of the entire fecal microbiota, not just a single agent or combination of agents, these terms have now been replaced by the new term 'Fecal Microbiota Transplantation'. FMT involves restoration of the colonic flora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. by enema, obtained from a healthy human donor.

Infusion of feces from healthy donors was demonstrated in a randomized, controlled trial to be highly effective in treating recurrent C. difficile, and more effective than vancomycin antibiotics
 It can also be used to treat other conditions, including but not limiting to: colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and many other conditions related to digestion and human immunity.

The procedure involves single to multiple infusions by enema of bacterial fecal flora originating from a healthy donor. Most patients with C. difficile are cured after just one treatment.[2][13][14]

Published experience of ulcerative colitis treatment with FMT largely shows that multiple and recurrent infusions are required to achieve prolonged remission or 'cure'.[15] The procedure is usually carried out via enema,[16] 
Although a close relative is often the easiest donor to obtain-
Genetic similarities or differences do not appear to play a role.[2]

In over 370 published reports there has been no reported infection transmission.[20]

A team of international gastroenterologists and infectious disease specialists have published formal standard practice guidelines for performing FMT which outline in detail the FMT procedure, including preparation of material, donor selection and screening, and FMT administration.[2]


Who needs Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Therapy?
Who Needs Stool Transplant Enema?

People with wide variety of health problems have experienced almost miraculous cures after fecal enema.
Some of the health problems that responded to Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Enema are:
chronic acne, cysts, unpleasant body odor, boils, Parkinson's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, candidiasis, colon cancer, colon polyps, hemorrhoids, anal fissure, chronic diarrhea, prostate cancer, prostatitis, enlarged prostate, allergies, leaky gut syndrome, poor digestion, gallstones, MCS, multiple sclerosis, Fibromyalgia syndrome, chronic clostridium difficile infection, amoeba infection, protozoa infection, pinworms, ascaris infection, tapeworm infection, poor digestion, gas, abdominal pain, irregular menstruation etc  ...



How to select a Healthy DONOR for FMT?

Who can be a donor?

A donor is selected based on his/her health. Safety is very important, so all precautions should be taken to avoid implanting feces infected with parasites or dangerous bacteria like for example clostridium difficille.   Click here to read about basic donor requirements.

Special Donor Requirements!

If the recipient of the FMT transplant is a person suffering from food allergies or food intolerance, special donor requirements must be satisfied to make FMT a safe procedure!

If the recipient of the feces is extremely allergic to some food items, the donor must not consume those foods for at least 10-14 days prior to starting FMT procedure, depending on food allergy.
Othervise, the FMT procedure may kill the recipient or may make him very sick!
For example, if the recipient is allergic to peanuts, the donor must not consume any peanuts for at least 14 days prior to starting FMT procedure.

If the recipient of the feces is intolerant of some food items, the donor must not consume those foods for at least 5-10 days prior to starting FMT procedure, depending on food intolerance.
Othervise, the FMT procedure may make the recipient very sick!
For example, if the recipient is intolerant of gluten or milk, the donor must not consume any gluten or milk at least 7-10 days prior to starting FMT procedure.

The fast and easy way forward: Family member or a child as a donor

A relatively safe way to choose a donor (in developed countries) is to choose a feces from a very healthy, breastfed young child.
It takes about 3 years for microbiota to get fully developed.
Fully developed microbiota can contain up to 1000 different strains of bacteria.
So, you are looking for a healthy child, at least 3 years old, or older.

There are very many  advantages in choosing a healthy child as a donor compared to selecting an adult donor

  • does not need to be tested for sexually transmitted diseases, if mother and child are healthy. In most developed countries, mothers are repeatedly tested for blood born sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and for many other diseases during pregnancy. Newborn babies are also routinly tested for blood born diseases. If mother have tested negative for STDs, and the baby was tested negative for STD, then once that bay is 3 years old, it can be a safe FMT donor.  Any child of pre-sexual age is considered a safe donor in regards to STDs. Most babies are also tested after birth (hospital birth), both for blood born STDs and for a long list of other diseases so  that requirement is satisfied by default.
  • a healthy child may not need to be tested for intestinal bacteria or intestinal parasites, if the child is healthy, and if mother and the child have never traveled to tropical countries.
  • healthy kids are never addicted to alcohol, narcotics, legal or illegal drugs, so that requirement is satisfied by default.
  • healthy young kids have no dental fillings,  that requirement is satisfied by default.
  • healthy kids have never suffered from any chronic disease or chronic health problem, so that requirement is satisfied by default..
  • healthy kids usually eat healthy diet,  that requirement is satisfied by default.
  • healthy kids have healthy digestion and healthy poop, what can be easily inspected.
  • very easy to get a fresh feces, all you need to do is collect it from a potti. Far more convenient than dealing with adult poop.
  • kids poop smells much better than adult poop!

The child should be very healthy, never treated with antibiotics and never treated with ANY oral or any other medications. The child  should not be underweight or overweight.  Never suffered from chronic diarrhea or chronic constipation.
To be on the safe side, the mother of the child should have never traveled to tropical countries.

Feces from the potti or from dipers::
Get fresh feces. Color of feces must be brown or brown-yellow, it must not be green, cause green color of feces almost always indicates lack of good and healthy bowel bacteria. (Unless child was drinking freshly pressed wheat grass juice, or consumed blueberries, or some other food of strong green or blue color, green color of feces always indicates lack of good bowel bacteria. Yellow (or yellow-brown, or brown if child has eaten meat) color indicates healthy feces.)


Here is a list of basic requirements an individual has to satisfy to be selected as a donor for FMT:
( quite many of those requirements are automatically satisfied if the donor is a young child, at least 3 years old)

  • born by natural vaginal birth (ask donors mother)
  • breast fed by mother for at least 8 months or longer (ask donors mother)
  • donors mother never used any prescription medications during pregnancy, especially not antibiotics
  • donor is generally very healthy person
  • never tested positive for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) like: HIV, Hepatitis C, B, A, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Herpes
  • not sexually promiscuous ( sexual promiscuity increases likeliness of an STD infection)
  • not practicing anal sex ( practicing anal sex increases likeliness of being infected with intestinal parasites or intestinal bacteria)
  • to be on the safe side, a sexually active donor should have taken an STD test during the last few months, if possible.
  • never been infected with intestinal parasites or blood parasites or dangerous intestinal bacteria
  • never traveled to third world tropical countries ( traveling to  third world tropical countries increases likeliness of being infected with intestinal parasites, dangerous intestinal bacteria or dangerous virus )
  • never suffered from travelers diarrhea
  • perfectly healthy digestion, no chronic digestive problems
  • never suffered from any chronic or serious diseases
  • never suffered from any chronic pain, including but not limiting to: chronic headaches, migraine, joint pains, chronic back or neck pain, arm pain, leg pain, foot pain etc.
  • never suffered from any mental illness like depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, etc.
  • not addicted to alcohol, narcotics, tobacco, legal or illegal drugs
  • has regular bowel movements, 1-2 per day,  healthy color of feces (brown - brown yellow), healthy smell of feces (not too strong smell), healthy shape of feces, nicely formed, rounded, not too large, not too small
  • healthy body weight, not obese, not underweight
  • healthy skin, healthy hair and healthy nails: never suffered from chronic acne, chronic peeling lips, hair loss, eczema, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, allergies, hives, boils, warts, etc.
  • never suffered from chronic unpleasant body odor, bad breath, inflamed tonsils, tonsil stones
  • never suffered from chronic vision problems
  • never treated with oral antibiotics or at least not treated with oral antibiotics during the last 5 years
  • healthy teeth and healthy gums. At least not having large number of amalgam fillings in his/her mouth
  • if it is a fertile woman, she should have a regular menstrual cycle.   Feces should not be taken during the days of  menstruation.
  • if it is a woman, she should not be using hormonal birth control like Mirena IUD or any other IUD, or any other hormonal pills.
  • never suffered from any chronic disease or any other diseases, including but not limiting to: inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, any form of cancer, Fibromyalgia, any tumor, cyst, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Autoimmune diseases, hypothyroidism, neurological diseases, endocrine disorders, arthritis etc.
  • never treated with strong medications
  • never been operated on, has all body parts on its place, working as it should
  • healthy heart, lungs and cardiovascular system
  • no hearing problems and no vision problems and no problems with any of the senses

When the therapy is performed in clinical setup, donor is usually tested for STDs and for blood and intestinal infections and parasites. 
When doing the therapy at home,  without possibility to test donor, you simply chose the healthiest donor available.

Teenager or adult donor:

You can also use feces from any healthy person, teenager or adult.

How to select a teenager or an adult donor?

Here are the basic requirements:

  • very healthy person, never been to a doctor, never needed a doctor
  • regular bowel movements, 1-2 per day
  • healthy color of feces (brown - brown yellow)
  • healthy smell of feces (not too strong smell, as it may indicate digestive problems)
  • healthy shape of feces, nicely formed, rounded, not too large, not too small
  • never treated with antibiotics,  or at least not treated with antibiotics during the last few years.
  • never been diagnosed with intestinal parasites, and never exhibited symptoms of intestinal parasites
  • average healthy weight, not obese, not underweight
  • never been diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases.
  • physically active
  • not sexually promiscuous ( to decrease likeliness of being infected with any STD since the last test)
  • not practicing anal sex (to decrease chances of being infected with  intestinal parasites.)
  • never suffered from chronic acne, chronic peeling lips, hair loss, eczema, psoriasis, allergies, etc.
  • never suffered from chronic unpleasant body odor, bad breath
  • never suffered from chronic constipation or chronic diarrhea or travelers diarrhea
  • never suffered from any chronic disease or any other diseases
  • never treated with strong medications
  • never diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, cancer, fibromyalgia, tumors, cysts, etc.
  • not addicted to junk foods, soft drinks, alcohol, narcotics, tobacco
  • not having a large number of amalgam fillings in his/her mouth
  • a donor that has never been treated with antibiotics is far better than a donor that has been  treated with antibiotics
  • if it is a woman, she should have a regular menstrual cycle. In that case, feces should not be taken during the days of  menstruation.
  • has not traveled to tropical countries with poor sanitation (to limit chances of a donor being unknowingly infected with intestinal parasites)
  • should test negative for sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, Chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis C, B, A, if possible, and if sexually active person.  Children of pre-sexual age may not need to be tested for STD.
  • should test negative for intestinal parasites, if possible to get tested. (blood test or stool test.)
  • should test negative for dangerous intestinal bacteria, if possible. (blood test or stool test)


Usually, a donor is a healthy family member, brother, sister, husband, wife, child, cousin, partner,  or a close friend.


You can not just ring on the door of your healthy neighbor Joe and ask him for poop.
- Hi Joe, how are you?  Beautiful day today!  You look really healthy!
- Hey, I need some of your poop.
- But, before you give it to me,  are you HIV negative?  Cause,  if you are positive, I don't really need it.

By the way, I have a few more questions for you:
- Are you promiscuous?  Do you practice safe sex? Do you practice anal sex by any chance?
- How long time since your last STD test?
- Have you used any antibiotics lately?
- Do you often have diarrhea? 
- Are you often constipated?  Are you often bloated ? Do you often fart?
- Do you scratch your anus often?
- Have you ever traveled to Brazil? Have you been swimming in Amazons?

- If the answer to any of those questions is Yes,  then just forget it ... I don't  need your poop, I will ask the girl next door.


So, it is obvious,  a donor has to be someone who will not call police after you ask him/her all of those and 100 of other similar questions ... :-)


Why are antibiotics so bad?

Antibiotics have a terrible side effect:  they alter bowel microbiota, changing it from healthy microbiota to unhealthy.

Antibiotics are the main cause or the main causative cofactor of chronic diseases like:  candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, chronic clostridium difficile infection, IBD, IBS, eczema, bad body odor, leaky gut syndrome, psoriasis, chronic acne, peeling lips, digestive problems, inflammatory bowel disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, etc.


You really need fresh feces (not older then 12 hours). You can also refrigerate diapers with fresh feces, and use it the next day, but the best is if you can get a hold of fresh feces / diapers.
You can also use a Tupperware box or any other similar plastic box to  store the feces in your refrigerator.  But, fresh is the best. So be nice to your donor!



Chlorine is added into tap water to kill bacteria. But, the main purpose of fecal enema is to get live bacteria into recipients colon. So, using chlorinated water for enema is really a bad idea.

Tap water can be used after it has been heated to a boiling point, and than cooled down to human body temperature.

You do not want to waste your time and energy with bowel flora altered in any way.  That is why you want fresh feces. Every hour feces has been outside colon,  it is undergoing a change.  You want fresh and healthy microbiota.
You can purchase a few liters of clean, non-chlorinated. non-fluoridated spring water or distilled water!


Details about taking fecal enema are explained on this next page  Read here


Consume a healthy, home-made foods before and after the transplant, to make sure your transplant is successful.  Foods to avoid: any foods with preservatives,  chlorinated water, foods with added sugar or artificial sweeteners,  soft drinks, alcohol, canned foods, any foods with ingredients you can't find in your kitchen.  Here is one list of those ingredients.

That is all. You will introduce widest possible range of good bacteria into your colon, and it will cure Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, clostridium difficile infection, chronic candidiasis caused by Candida albicans, leaky gut syndrome, anal fissure, Crohn's disease, chronic acne, peeling lips, unpleasant body odor, poor digestion, irregular menstrual cycles,   etc.

If it doesn't work with one donor, try to find another one. One will work!

In case of some chronic diseases you may need to repeat the fecal enema several times a month.

A 2009 study found that fecal bacteriotherapy has the advantages of being an effective and simple procedure that is more cost-effective than continued antibiotic administration and reduces the incidence of antibiotic resistance.[39]

A randomized study published in the New England Medical Journal in January 2013 reported a 94% cure rate of pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, by administering fecal microbiota transplant compared to just 31% with vancomycin. The study was stopped prematurely as it was considered unethical not to offer the FMT to all participants of the study due to the outstanding results.[8][40]

As of May 2008, studies have also shown that FMT can have a positive effect on devastating neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease.[12] While Dr. Thomas Borody was experimenting with patients that were afflicted by both CDI and Parkinson's disease, he realized that after fecal therapy the symptoms of Parkinson's in his patients began to decrease; some to the point that the Parkinson's could not be detected by other neurologists. The hypothesis for future studies is that the fluctuation in the body's microbiome done by FMT can also be recreated by adding anti-Clostridium difficile antibodies to the patient's body and this technique shall be used in Dr. Borody's future case studies involving Parkinson's disease.[20]


How often can I take fecal enema?

Fecal enema, or fecal bowel flora transplant can be done few times a week for several weeks or several months, no danger in repeating the procedure. The person undertaking the therapy should avoid treatment by oral antibiotics.


Where to get a support on doing Fecal Transplantation at home or Fecal Enema or Fecal Bacteriotherapy at home?

Here are several forums where this therapy is discussed:

To read




The first description of FMT was published in 1958 by Eiseman and colleagues, a team of surgeons from Colorado, who treated four critically ill patients with fulminant pseudomembranous colitis (before C.difficile was the known cause) using fecal enemas, which resulted in a rapid return to health.[16]

Since that time various institutions have offered the treatment as a therapeutic option for a variety of conditions. At the Centre for Digestive Diseases in Sydney Australia, FMT has been offered as a treatment options for over 20 years. In May 1988 the CDD treated the first idiopathic colitis patient with FMT which resulted in a durable clinical and histological cure.[24] Since that time, a number of publications have reported the successful treatment of UC with FMT,[25][26][27][28][29] with clinical trials now underway in this indication.

As the use of FMT continues to expand, the therapeutic potential of FMT in other conditions, including autoimmune disorders,[30] neurological conditions,[11] obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes,[20] Multiple Sclerosis,[31] and Parkinson's disease[12] is now being explored.

Theoretical basis

The hypothesis behind fecal bacteriotherapy rests on the concept of bacterial interference, i.e. using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic organisms. In the case of CDI, the C.difficile pathogen is identifiable.
However in the case of other conditions such as ulcerative colitis, Parkinson's, MS, Crohn's disease, , no single 'culprit' has yet been identified.
In patients with relapsing CDI, the mechanism of action may be the restoration of missing components of the flora including Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes.[32][33][34]
The introduction of normal flora results in durable implantation of these components.[35] Another theoretical mechanism entails the production of antimicrobial agents (Bacteriocins) by the introduced colonic flora to eradicate C. difficile. This may be a similar mechanism to that of Vancomycin which originated from soil bacteria, and bacillus thuringiensis which has been proven to produce bacteriocins specific for C. difficile.[36] The potential combination of replacement of missing components and production of antimicrobial products manufactured by the incoming flora are likely to be the mechanisms curing CDI. In the case of ulcerative colitis, it is likely that a shared infectious mechanism is at play, where the offending infective agent/s are still unknown. Given the response to FMT, it is scientifically plausible that an infection persists but cannot be identified as was the case with pseudomembranous colitis when it was first treated in 1958.[16]






  1.  Rowan, Karen (20 October 2012). "'Poop Transplants' May Combat Bacterial Infections". Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Bakken, Johan S.; Borody, Thomas; Brandt, Lawrence J.; Brill, Joel V.; Demarco, Daniel C.; Franzos, Marc Alaric; Kelly, Colleen; Khoruts, Alexander; Louie, Thomas; Martinelli, Lawrence P.; Moore, Thomas A.; Russell, George; Surawicz, Christina (1 December 2011). "Treating Clostridium difficile Infection With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9 (12): 1044–1049. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.08.014. PMC 3223289. PMID 21871249. 
  3.  Borody TJ, Khoruts A. Fecal microbiota transplantation and emerging applications. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9(2): 88-96
  4.  Gould CV, McDonald LC. (2008). "Bench-to-bedside review: Clostridium difficile colitis". Crit Care 12 (1): 203. doi:10.1186/cc6207. PMC 2374604. PMID 18279531. 
  5.  Sailhamer EA, Carson K, Chang Y, Zacharias N, Spaniolas K, Tabbara M, Alam HB, DeMoya MA, Velmahos GC. Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: patterns of care and predictors of mortality. Arch Surg 2009; 144: 433-439
  6.  Jarvis WR, Schlosser J, Jarvis AA, Chin RY. National point prevalence of Clostridium difficile in US health care facility inpatients. Am J Infect Control 2009; 37: 263-270
  7.  Brandt LJ, Borody TJ, Campbell J. Endoscopic fecal microbiota transplantation: “first-line” treatment for severe Clostridium difficile infection? J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: 655-657
  8. ^ Jump up to: a b van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, Fuentes S, Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM, Visser CE, Kuijper EJ, Bartelsman JF, Tijssen JG, Speelman P, Dijkgraaf MG, Keller JJ (16 Jan 2013). "Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile". N Engl J Med: 130116140046009. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1205037. PMID 23323867. 
  9.  Grady, Denise (16 January 2013). "When Pills Fail, This, er, Option Provides a Cure". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  10. ^ Jump up to: a b c Borody, TJ; George, L; Andrews, P; Brandl, S; Noonan, S; Cole, P; Hyland, L; Morgan, A; Maysey, J; Moore-Jones, D (15 May 1989). "Bowel-flora alteration: a potential cure for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome?". The Medical journal of Australia 150 (10): 604. PMID 2783214. 
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b Borody TJ, Leis S, Campbell J, et al. (2011). "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) in multiple sclerosis (MS)". Am J Gastroenterol 106: S352. 
  12. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ananthaswamy, Anil (19 January 2011). "Faecal transplant eases symptoms of Parkinson's". New Scientist. Retrieved 2013-01-22. 
  13.  Kelly CR, De Leon L, Jasutkar N (2012). "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection in 26 patients: methodology and results". J Clin Gastroenterol 46 (2): 145–149. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e318234570b. PMID 22157239. 
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b Brandt LJ, Borody TJ, Campbell J. Endoscopic fecal microbiota transplantation: "first-line" treatment for severe clostridium difficile infection? (Sep 2011). "Endoscopic Fecal Microbiota Transplantation". J Clin Gastroenterol 45 (8): 655–657. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182257d4f. PMID 21716124. 
  15.  Borody TJ, Campbell J. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current status and future directions. Exp Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 5(6): 653-655
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c Eiseman B, Silen W, Bascom GS, et al. (1958). "Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous enterocolitis". Surgery 44 (5): 854–859. PMID 13592638. 
  17.  Lund-Tonnesen S, Berstad A, Schreiner A et al. (1998). "Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea treated with homologous feces". Tidsskr nor Laegeforen 118 (7): 1027–1030. PMID 9531822. 
  18.  Persky SE, Brandt LJ (2000). "Treatment of recurrent Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea by administration of donated stool directly through a colonoscope". Am J Gastroenterol 95 (11): 3283–3285. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03302.x. PMID 11095355. 
  19.  Borody TJ, Leis S, Pang G et al. Fecal Bacteriotherapy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. UpToDate
  20. ^ Jump up to: a b c Borody TJ, Khoruts A (20 Dec 2011). "Fecal microbiota transplantation and emerging applications". Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 9 (2): 88–96. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2011.244. PMID 22183182. 
  21.  Martin WJ (2009). "Encapsulated Medicines for Iatrogenic Diseases". British Patent Application: GB0916335.3. 
  22.  Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Sadowsky MJ, Khoruts A. Standardised frozen preparation for transplantation of fecal microbiota for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107:761-767
  23.  Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Unno T, Khoruts A Sadowsky MJ. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria. Gut Microbes 2013; 4: 1-11
  24.  Borody TJ, Campbell J. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current status and future directions. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 5(6): 653-655
  25.  Bennet JD, Brinkman M. Treatment of ulcerative colitis by implantation of normal colonic flora. Lancet 1989; 1: 164
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  27.  Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis SM, Surace R, Ashman O, Siarakis S. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38(6): 475-83
  28.  Borody TJ, Torres M, Campbell J, et al. (2011). "Reversal of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with recurrent fecal microbiota transplants (FMT)". Am J Gastroenterol 106: S352. 
  29.  Borody TJ, Paramsothy S, Agrawal G. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Indications, Methods, Evidence and Future Directions. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2013; 15: 337
  30.  Borody TJ, Campbell J, Torres M, et al. (2011). "Reversal of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT)". Am J Gastroenterol 106: S352. 
  31.  Borody TJ, Leis S, Campbell J, Torres M, Nowak A. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S352
  32.  Chang JY, Antopoulos DA, Kalra A, et al. (2008). "Decreased diversity of the fecal microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea". J Infect Dis 197 (3): 438. doi:10.1086/525047. 
  33.  Khoruts A, Dicksved J, Jansson JK, et al. (2010). "Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome after bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea". J Clin Gastroenterol 44 (5): 354–360. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181c87e02. PMID 20048681. 
  34.  Tvede M, Rask-Madsen J (1989). "Bacteriohterapy for chronic relapsing clostridium difficile diarrhoea in six patients". Lancet 333 (8648): 1156–1160. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(89)92749-9. 
  35.  Grehan MJ, Borody TJ, Leis SM, et al. (2010). "Durable alteration of the colonic microbiota by the administration of donor fecal flora". J Clin Gastroenterol 44 (8): 551–561. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181e5d06b. PMID 20716985. 
  36.  Rea MC, Dobson A, O'Sullivan O, Crispie F, Fouhy F, Cotter PD, Shanahan F, Kiely B, Hill C, Ross RP (15 Mar 2011). "Effect of broad- and narrow-spectrum antimicrobials on Clostridium difficile and microbial diversity in a model of the distal colon". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 (Suppl 1): 4639–4644. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001224107. PMC 3063588. PMID 20616009. 
  37.  Best EL, Fawley WN, Parnell P, et al. (2010). "The potential for airborne dispersal of clostridium difficile from symptomatic patients". Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1450–1457. doi:10.1086/652648. PMID 20415567. 
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  40.  Kelly CP. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation - An Old Therapy Comes of Age (16 Jan 2013). "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation — an Old Therapy Comes of Age". N Engl J Med: 130116140046009. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1214816. PMID 23323865. 

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